6.05 Forming memories Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6.05 Forming memories Deck (34):
1

three stages of memory, according to information processing theory

sensory memory, short-term, long-term

2

stage of memory in which information enters the NS through sensory systems or organs

sensory

3

visual sensory memory that lasts a fraction of a second

iconic

4

his work on iconic memory showed that participants could recall information that was shown to them for just a fraction of a second, but that this memory itself lasted less than 1 second

George Sperling

5

process in which information that was just in iconic memory is replaced by new information

masking

6

"photographic" memory of someone who can access an iconic memory over a long period of time

eidetic

7

tiny little movements that prevent our vision from adapting to constant stimulus; iconic memory allows us to see our surroundings as continuous, in spite of these

microsaccades

8

the brief memory of something a person has heard

echoic

9

span of echoic memory

up to four seconds

10

second stage of memory, according to information-processing theory

short-term memory (STM)

11

information enters our STM through the __ __ filter

selective attention

12

STM is encoded primarily in this form

auditory

13

an active system that processes information in our STM

working memory (often used interchangeably with STM)

14

his digit-span studies of STM showed that people could recall 7±2 pieces of information

George Miller

15

the recoding of information into meaningful units to improve our STM

chunking

16

STM can last about __ seconds without rehearsal

12 to 30 seconds

17

when we repeat something that we want to remember over and over again

maintenance rehearsal

18

third stage of memory, according to information-processing theory

long-term memory (LTM)

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capacity of LTM

unlimited

20

type of rehearsal in which the learner creates a link between the new information and something else that was previously known, or providing context for the information

elaborative rehearsal

21

which type of rehearsal is most effective at moving information from STM to LTM?

elaborative rehearsal

22

two types of LTM

memory for skills and memory for facts

23

memory for things that people know how to do, where knowledge is implied rather than stated

nondeclarative/implicit memory

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memory for skills and habits

procedural memory

25

improvement in identifying things after having prior experience with them

priming

26

brain location for storing emotional associations like fear

amygdala

27

brain location for storing memories of conditioned responses

cerebellum

28

condition in which a patient cannot form new long-term declarative memories

anterograde amnesia

29

people with anterograde amnesia do not lose their __ memory, and they are still able to form new __ memories, like simple tasks

nondeclarative; procedural

30

LTM that stores general knowledge that anyone could know

semantic memory

31

LTM that stores personal knowledge about our own histories; tends to be updated and revised constantly

episodic memory

32

__memories tend to be brought from LTM to STM easily, and they can quickly be made conscious

explicit/declarative

33

according to this model, LTM is organized into a network, where information is categorized in a kind of hierarchy and related memories are physically close to each other

semantic network model

34

memory that helps us to recall information that we will need in order to perform a task in the future

prospective memory