9.04-9.05 Stress Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 9.04-9.05 Stress > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.04-9.05 Stress Deck (64):
1

the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging

stress

2

stress-causing events

stressors

3

occurs when people experience unpleasant stressors

distress

4

beneficial stress that results from positive events that demand adaptation or change; the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being

eustress

5

an unpredictable event that happens on a large scale and creates a huge amount of stress

catastrophe

6

the two men who believed that any life event that required change, adaptation, or lifestyle adjustment would result in stress

Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe

7

Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe's scale for measuring stress

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)

8

the SRRS results indicate a link between stress and __ and __

illness and accidents

9

the daily annoyances that make up the bulk of the stress we experience

hassles

10

hassles are good predictors of __

short-term illnesses, such as headaches, colds, and backaches

11

the experience produced by urgent demands for a person's behavior, coming from an outside source

pressure

12

most common form of pressure

time pressure

13

time pressure tends to decrease __ levels

creativity

14

occurs when a person is prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need

frustration

15

occur when a goal or need cannot be attained because of a person's characteristics

internal frustrations

16

possible responses to frustration

persistence, aggression, displaced aggression, escape/withdrawal

17

continuing the efforts to get around the cause of the frustration

persistence

18

using actions meant to harm or destroy

aggression

19

taking out one's frustrations aggressively on an available scapegoat; often directed at targets that are less threatening than the cause of a person's frustration

displaced aggression

20

leaving the presence of the stressor, either by withdrawing psychologically or literally

escape

21

suggests that some form of frustration nearly always precedes aggression

frustration-aggression hypothesis

22

psychological escape into apathy, fantasy, or substance abuse

withdrawal

23

occurs when we find ourselves torn between completing desires or goals, can cause stress

conflict

24

conflict that typically does not cause much stress, because it requires a choice between two attractive goals

approach-approach conflict

25

stressful conflict between two undesirable choice

avoidance-avoidance conflict

26

a conflict generally involving one goal, and the decision to pursue it or not

approach-avoidance conflict

27

a conflict that requires a decision between two goals/options, both with benefits and drawbacks

double approach-avoidance conflict

28

a conflict that requires a decision between more than two goals/options, all with benefits and drawbacks

multiple approach-avoidance conflict

29

division of the nervous system responsible for automatic, involuntary, and life-sustaining activities

autonomic NS

30

two divisions of the ANS

sympathetic and parasympathetic

31

division of the ANS that reacts when the human body is subjected to stress

sympathetic

32

three actions of the sympathetic NS

• heart rate increases
• digestion slows down
• energy sent to muscles

33

division of the ANS that returns the body to normal functioning after stress has ended

parasympathetic

34

founder of the modern field of stress research

Hans Selye

35

Selye's name for the body's sequence of physiological reactions to stress

general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

36

three stages of GAS

alarm, resistance, exhaustion

37

GAS: activation of sympathetic NS; burst of energy; possible fever, nausea or headache

arousal

38

GAS: stress hormones continue to be released; analgesia

resistance

39

GAS: body's resources gone; stress-related diseases may result; stressor ends and parasympathetic activity resumes

exhaustion

40

two most common diseases that result from stress

ulcer and high blood pressure

41

the nerve that normal alerts the brain when a pathogen has infected the body; the nerve is not active in the stress response, but the brain acts as though it has been stimulated by this nerve

vagus nerve

42

stress hormone that interferes with the proteins that prevent cancer

adrenaline / epinephrine

43

field that focuses on how our physical activities, psychological traits, and relationships affect our health and rate of illness

health psychology

44

his cognitive-mediational theory of emotions explains why people who interpret a stressor differently can have different responses to it; he also identified a two-step process for assessing the degree of harm of a stressor, and how one should react to it

Richard Lazarus

45

purpose of Lazarus's primary appraisal

estimate the severity of the stressor and classifying it as a threat, a challenge, or a harm that has already occurred; at this stage, perceiving the stressor as a challenge, rather than as a threat, makes coping easier

46

purpose of Lazarus's secondary appraisal

estimate one's ability to cope with a harmful stressor

47

characteristics of the Type A personality

competitive, ambitious, workaholic, pressured to do well, easily upset

48

characteristics of the Type B personality

easygoing, slow to anger

49

the Type A personality trait most closely tied to disease

hostility

50

characteristics of the Type C personality

tend to internalize anger, find it hard to express negative emotions, pleasant on the surface, experience despair and loneliness

51

the disease most closely tied to the Type C personality

cancer

52

personality type for Type A people who seem to thrive on stress, rather than letting it wear them down

hardy (H)

53

people who tend to look for positive outcomes, generally live longer and have increased immune functioning

optimists

54

his research found that optimists are more likely to take preventative health measures, experience less psychological stress, and that they are less likely to become depressed or fall prey to learned helplessness

Martin Seligman

55

the lack of sufficient money to provide for the basic necessities of life; a significant stressor

poverty

56

occurs when prolonged stress results in mental and physical exhaustion

burnout

57

stress associated with adapting to a new or different culture; can result from having to deal with prejudice and discrimination

acculturative stress

58

response to acculturative stress: one maintains a sense of his/her original culture, but also forms positive relationships with the new

integration

59

response to acculturative stress: one abandons the old culture and complete adopts the new; leads to some stress, as culture is lost

assimilation

60

response to acculturative stress: one rejects the new culture and maintains the old completely; can be very stressful, especially if the separation is forced by discrimination, rather than voluntary

separation

61

individuals with few ties to the original culture or acceptance of the new

marginalized

62

coping strategy: working to eliminate the stressor, or to reduce its impact

problem-focused coping

63

coping strategy: changing the way one views or responds to the stressor

emotion-focused coping

64

performing mental exercises to refocus attention

meditation