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Child Health Week 1 2017/18 > 8: Immunisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8: Immunisation Deck (20)
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1

What is the point of vaccination?

To prevent the spread of communicable diseases in the population

2

What types of prevention can vaccination achieve?

Primary - stop you from getting it in the first place

Secondary - reduce the disease's severity (e.g Hep B, rabies and shingles)

3

Vaccines contain ___ which trigger the release of ___ and recruit ___ cells.

antigen , antibodies , immune cells

4

Where do B cells mature?

Bone marrow

5

Where do T cells mature?

Thymus

6

Vaccination and the natural generation of antibodies in response to a pathogen is an example of active immunity.

What are examples of passive immunity?

Transfer of antibodies from mother to baby

Antibody injections

7

Antibody injections work ___ but only over a ___ period.

rapidly

short period of effectiveness

8

What is herd immunity?

If a large enough proportion of the population is vaccinated against an infection, the unvaccinated individuals are protected

9

What is required for herd immunity to work?

No other reservoir of infection in the population

10

What are two types of vaccine?

Live attenuated

Inactivated

11

What are live attenuated vaccines?

Vaccines containing live organisms which have been rendered less virulent and infectious

12

What are some examples of live attenuated vaccines?

Polio

MMR

Varicella-zoster

Rotavirus

Influenza

13

What are inactivated vaccines?

Vaccines containing dead organisms, toxin subunits or polysaccharides (conjugate vaccines)

14

What reactions can occur in people who are given vaccines?

Allergic reactions

Anaphylaxis

15

What are some contraindications for vaccines?

Confirmed anaphylaxis to previous vaccination

Immunosuppression

Anaphylaxis

Egg / latex allergy

Ongoing acute illness

16

What infectious disease is caused by a Corynebacterium and causes severe URT infection, but has since been eradicated in the UK by vaccination?

Diptheria

17

What bacteria causes meningococcal disease?

Neisseria meningitidis

18

What is elimination of disease?

Reduction of incidence of a disease to zero which requires maintained effort

19

What is eradication of idsease?

PERMANENT reduction of disease prevalence to zero e.g smallpox

20

What is extinction of disease?

Permanent eradication of an infectious organism to the point it's found nowhere