What is the point of vaccination?
To prevent the spread of communicable diseases in the population
What types of prevention can vaccination achieve?
Primary - stop you from getting it in the first place
Secondary - reduce the disease's severity (e.g Hep B, rabies and shingles)
Vaccines contain ___ which trigger the release of ___ and recruit ___ cells.
antigen , antibodies , immune cells
Where do B cells mature?
Where do T cells mature?
Vaccination and the natural generation of antibodies in response to a pathogen is an example of active immunity.
What are examples of passive immunity?
Transfer of antibodies from mother to baby
Antibody injections work ___ but only over a ___ period.
short period of effectiveness
What is herd immunity?
If a large enough proportion of the population is vaccinated against an infection, the unvaccinated individuals are protected
What is required for herd immunity to work?
No other reservoir of infection in the population
What are two types of vaccine?
What are live attenuated vaccines?
Vaccines containing live organisms which have been rendered less virulent and infectious
What are some examples of live attenuated vaccines?
What are inactivated vaccines?
Vaccines containing dead organisms, toxin subunits or polysaccharides (conjugate vaccines)
What reactions can occur in people who are given vaccines?
What are some contraindications for vaccines?
Confirmed anaphylaxis to previous vaccination
Egg / latex allergy
Ongoing acute illness
What infectious disease is caused by a Corynebacterium and causes severe URT infection, but has since been eradicated in the UK by vaccination?
What bacteria causes meningococcal disease?
What is elimination of disease?
Reduction of incidence of a disease to zero which requires maintained effort
What is eradication of idsease?
PERMANENT reduction of disease prevalence to zero e.g smallpox
What is extinction of disease?
Permanent eradication of an infectious organism to the point it's found nowhere