9: Nervous system development Flashcards Preview

Child Health Week 1 2017/18 > 9: Nervous system development > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9: Nervous system development Deck (43)
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1

When does the brain begin to develop?

3rd week

2

What are two factors affecting brain development?

Genetics

Environment

3

What is a metabolic disease which can cause developmental delay or regression?

PKU

4

Exposure to what environmental factors can affect brain development?

Alcohol, drugs

Nutrition in general

Viruses, bacteria

5

When is the embryonic period?

Conception to Week 9

6

When is the foetal period?

Week 9 to Birth (on average Week 40)

7

What are the two initial layers of an embryo?

Epiblast

Hypoblast

8

Cells migrate through what to form the mesoderm?

Primitive streak

9

What are the three layers remaining after cells have migrated through the primitive streak?

Epiderm

Mesoderm

Endoderm

10

Which germ layer develops into bone, muscle, cartilage and the vascular system?

Mesoderm

11

Which germ layer develops into the skin, hair, nails and nervous system?

Ectoderm

12

Which germ layer forms the skin, hair, nails and neural tissue?

Ectoderm

13

Which germ layer develops into the gut and respiratory system?

Endoderm

14

Why is it significant that the skin, hair, nails and brain develop from the same germ layer?

Neurocutaneous diseases e.g NF

15

What is the first neural structure to form?

Neural tube

16

What disorders occur if the neural tube doesn't close properly during development?

Neural tube defects e.g spina bifida, anencephaly

17

What zone is found inside the neural tube?

What does the outside of the tube form?

Ventricular zone

Cerebral cortex, i.e the brain itself

18

The caudal part of the neural tube forms what?

Spinal cord

19

What is neural patterning?

Cells in the brain develop specific functions depending on their position

20

When is the foetal period?

Week 9 till birth

21

Why does the brain develop sulci and gyri?

Originally flat but needs to fit through birth canal, so folds to maximise surface area

22

Neurones ___ and then ___.

divide

migrate

23

Can neurons multiply once they have migrated?

No

24

Neurons migrate from the ___ of the brain to the ___.

ventricles to cortex

25

What are two types of process found in neurons which allow them to communicate with each other?

Dendrites

Axons (much bigger)

26

What percentage of neurons die off before birth?

50%

27

If division and migration are the important processes of the prenatal period, what is the important process in the postnatal period?

Myelination

28

What is myelin?

Fatty substances which insulates axons (allows nerve impulses to travel further and quicker)

29

What directions does myelination occur in?

Bottom to top

Back to front

30

Apart from myelination, what is required for the brain to develop in the postnatal period?

EXPERIENCE

i.e brain input