5: Normal development Flashcards Preview

Child Health Week 1 2017/18 > 5: Normal development > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Normal development Deck (32)
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1

What are three factors which influence a child's growth and development?

Genetics

Nutrition

Environment

2

What factor determines your potential to develop?

What factors actually "cause" development?

Genetics

Nutrition & Environment

3

What dietary problem can stunt a child's growth and development?

Malnutrition

4

When can the environment affect a child's growth and development?

Both before and after birth:

Smoking, alcohol and drugs

Diet; obesity

Lots of screen time may overstimulate

5

What is a developmental milestone?

Age when a new skill is developed

6

Are development milestones definitive?

No, vary between children

7

What is the median age?

Age by which 50% of the population should have acquired a skill

8

What is the limit age?

Age by which a skill has been acquired by 97.5% of children 

(2 standard deviations)

9

What are the median and limit ages for walking?

Median age = 12 months

Limit age = 18 months

10

What are some normal variations of crawling?

Bottom-scraping

Commando crawl

Rolling

Torpedo crawling

11

If a child is born prematurely, how does this affect their expected developmental milestones?

If 3 months premature for example, normal milestones will be 3 months earlier - ADJUSTED AGE

12

Development is a ___ process.

continuous

13

Development is dependent on the maturation of what?

Nervous system

14

In which vertical direction does nervous system maturation occur?

Does it occur from medial to lateral or the other way round?

Cephalocaudal

i.e from head to toe

and laterally

so trunk THEN limbs

15

What are the four areas of development?

Gross motor

Fine motor and vision

Language and hearing

Social behaviour and play

16

Which area of development is most focused in the first year of life?

Gross motor

17

At which median age should a baby be smiling socially?

What is the limit age?

6 weeks

8 weeks

Narrow window as a lack of smiling indicates cognitive problems

18

What are important gross motor milestones that you should probably know?

Head control - 3 months

Sitting properly - 6 months

Crawling - 9 months (child may be cruising as well)

Walking - 12 months (limit age is 18 months)

Running - 18 months

Stairs (one at a time / alternating) - 24 / 36 months

Hopping - 48 months

 

19

At what age should a child be talking?

18 months

(same time as running)

20

What are some primitive reflexes which must be lost before motor development can occur?

Sucking and rooting

Palmar and plantar grasp

ATNR (Fencing reflex)

Moro reflex

Stepping and planting reflexes

21

What do the sucking and rooting reflexes aid?

Breastfeeding

22

What reflexes involve the hands and feet and are lost in infants at around 6 weeks?

Palmar and plantar reflexes

23

What is ATNR?

Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex

Fencing reflex

When baby's head rolls to side (e.g on an unstable surface), limbs on that side extend and flex on the opposite side

24

What is the Moro reflex?

When baby's head tilts back (as if they're falling), upper limbs ABDUCT and then ADDUCT (making a grabbing motion in front of them)

25

What do babies tend to do with objects?

Try to eat them

26

Which area of development is most closely linked with cognitive development?

Language and hearing

27

At which age should children be able to regard their own hands in the midline?

3 months

28

What is the general progression of fine motor skills?

Regard of own hands

Grasping

Building towers

Drawing

29

At which age may children be speaking words?

18 months

(Limit age for walking and median age for running)

30

Failure to reach which social and play development milestone is a strong indicator of a cognitive disorder or learning difficulty?

Smile (6 weeks)