What is adolescence?
The period of time between puberty and becoming an adult
Which ethical principles are treated differently to children and adults versus adolescents?
Capacity to consent
What is meant by transition in terms of paediatrics?
Progression from paediatric to adult care and supporting patients through that
What is the WHO definition of an adolescent?
10 - 19 years
In general, adolescence covers the ages of __ and __ and involves physical, social and psychological ___.
10 and 20 years
What staging system describes puberty?
Which biological processes occur during adolescence?
Growth (growth spurts)
CNS development (increase in grey matter and synaptic connections)
What does CNS development during adolescence aid with?
What is abstract thinking?
Ability to think about things which aren't directly in front of you
Aids in decision making, applying ideas to different situations, thinking beyond the here and now
Abstract thinking is important to giving what?
What is the different between assent and consent?
Assent is an expression of agreement by a person (usually a minor) who does not have capacity to consent
Consent is given by someone with the capacity to do so
Which mnemonic is used to assess the developmental stage of an adolescent?
Sexual maturation and growth
Education / employment
Parental and peer relationships
What is competency?
Legal term meaning ability to do something (i.e capacity)
i.e understand explanations, benefits and risks of treatment
understand that information applies to them
make a choice without pressure or coercion
Can young people under the age of 16 consent to treatment?
In Scotland, yes, if they have capacity
In Scotland, parents (can / cannot) authorise treatment a child has refused.
What is important if an adolescent is giving you sensitive information?
How can the confidentiality of an adolescent be preserved in a consultation with their parents?
Ask parents to leave
When can a patient's confidentiality be broken?
When the patient or other patients would be put at risk without disclosure
What is the rule in Scotland regarding underage sex?
Having sex with someone under the age of 16 is illegal
(it's not in their interest to prosecute consentual sex between underage people of roughly the same age, more interested in finding out the circumstances behind it happening)
someone 18+ having sex with someone under 16 is never ok
What does looked after technically mean?
In local authority care
What age is associated with the highest rate of child mortality?
Under 1 year
After < 1 year, what age has the highest rate of child mortality?
Late adolescence (15 - 19)
due to risk-taking behaviours, RTAs etc.
Unhealthy adolescents almost universally turn into unhealthly ___.
What mental health problems are commonly seen in adolescents?
Depression, anxiety, psychosis
Functional disorders (e.g psychosomatic GI problems with no underlying medical cause)
What long-term conditions are seen in adolescents?
Inflammatory bowel disease
What social things cause problems typically in adolescents?
What must be considered, particularly in adolescent girls, when prescribing drugs?
Teratogenic drugs e.g anti-epileptics, methotrexate