Rather than "developing / developed" or first/second/third-world, what terms are used to describe countries now?
Low / middle / high income countries
What is infant mortality rate?
Probability of dying before the age of 1
Are stillbirths / miscarriages included in infant mortality rates?
No, live births only
Countries where the infant mortality rate is high tend to have less ___.
What parts of the world have the highest infant mortality rates?
Neonatal mortality describes the death of a child in what period of life?
First 28 days
What simple measures taken at birth reduce the infant mortality rate?
Skilled attendant > clean deliver
Treatment for infection
What is the most common respiratory cause of infant mortality?
What is the most common GI cause of infant mortality?
secondary to gastroenteritis caused by contaminated water and food
How can pneumonia be prevented?
How is diarrhoea prevented?
Safe drinking water and food
Good hygiene and sanitation
How is infant diarrhoea treated?
Oral rehydration solution (relearn SGLT2)
Zinc supplements - micronutrient replacement
How does SGLT work?
Cotransporter for Na+ and Glucose INTO small bowel / kidneys (1/2)
Water follows sodium so effectively rehydrates
(Oral rehydration solutions contain water, sodium and glucose to take advantage of SGLT and rehydrate quicker)
What is a viral infection which causes a large proportion of paed deaths in Africa?
How can babies contract HIV?
Transmission from mother
across placenta, during delivery or via breastfeeding
How is mother-child HIV transmission prevented?
Put mother on anti-retrovirals
Give infant anti-retrovirals prophylactically after birth
In a child with recurrent widespread infections, what should be suspected?
As with many viruses, how is HIV tested for?
Why can't the blood of breastfeeding babies be tested for HIV?
If mother is on anti-retrovirals then the baby will receive remnants from breast milk - not a representative of baby w/o antibodies
Why is compliance for anti-retrovirals poor?
How does HIV cause immune suppression?
Attacks CD4+ T cells, inhibiting body's ability to produce an immune response
What distinctive tumour(s) are associated with HIV infection?
Which type of pneumonia is associated with HIV?
What sort of vaccines should be avoided in people with HIV?
weakened immune system so can cause actual infection
What infection commonly accompanies HIV in infected children?
chronic cough, fever, weight loss, night sweats, lymphadenopathy...
so treatments are often given together
How is suspected childhood TB investigated?
Ziehl-Neelson test for Acid-fast bacilli in sputum (not common in kids)
CXR (for cavitating lesions)
How is tuberculosis treated?
2 RIPE 4 RI
2 months of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol
then 4 months of rifampicin and isoniazid only
What immunisation are people with HIV commonly given?
BCG for TB
What is a common parasitic infection causing child mortality?
Which organism causes malaria?