3: Global Child Health Flashcards Preview

Child Health Week 1 2017/18 > 3: Global Child Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: Global Child Health Deck (37)
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1

Rather than "developing / developed" or first/second/third-world, what terms are used to describe countries now?

Low / middle / high income countries

2

What is infant mortality rate?

Probability of dying before the age of 1

3

Are stillbirths / miscarriages included in infant mortality rates?

No, live births only

4

Countries where the infant mortality rate is high tend to have less ___.

doctors

5

What parts of the world have the highest infant mortality rates?

Africa

SE Asia

6

Neonatal mortality describes the death of a child in what period of life?

First 28 days

7

What simple measures taken at birth reduce the infant mortality rate?

Skilled attendant > clean deliver

Vaccination

Treatment for infection

 

8

What is the most common respiratory cause of infant mortality?

Pneumonia

9

What is the most common GI cause of infant mortality?

Diarrhoea

secondary to gastroenteritis caused by contaminated water and food

10

How can pneumonia be prevented?

Vaccination

Good hygiene

Nutrition support

11

How is diarrhoea prevented?

Safe drinking water and food

Good hygiene and sanitation

Vaccination

12

How is infant diarrhoea treated?

Oral rehydration solution (relearn SGLT2)

Zinc supplements - micronutrient replacement

13

How does SGLT work?

Cotransporter for Naand Glucose INTO small bowel / kidneys (1/2)

Water follows sodium so effectively rehydrates

(Oral rehydration solutions contain water, sodium and glucose to take advantage of SGLT and rehydrate quicker)

14

What is a viral infection which causes a large proportion of paed deaths in Africa?

HIV

15

How can babies contract HIV?

Transmission from mother

across placenta, during delivery or via breastfeeding

16

How is mother-child HIV transmission prevented?

Put mother on anti-retrovirals

Screening

Give infant anti-retrovirals prophylactically after birth

17

In a child with recurrent widespread infections, what should be suspected?

HIV infection

18

As with many viruses, how is HIV tested for?

Viral PCR

19

Why can't the blood of breastfeeding babies be tested for HIV?

If mother is on anti-retrovirals then the baby will receive remnants from breast milk - not a representative of baby w/o antibodies

20

Why is compliance for anti-retrovirals poor?

Disgusting medication

21

How does HIV cause immune suppression?

Attacks CD4+ T cells, inhibiting body's ability to produce an immune response

22

What distinctive tumour(s) are associated with HIV infection?

Kaposi sarcomas

23

Which type of pneumonia is associated with HIV?

Pneumocystis jirovecci

24

What sort of vaccines should be avoided in people with HIV?

Live attenuated

weakened immune system so can cause actual infection

25

What infection commonly accompanies HIV in infected children?

Tuberculosis

chronic cough, fever, weight loss, night sweats, lymphadenopathy...

so treatments are often given together

26

How is suspected childhood TB investigated?

Ziehl-Neelson test for Acid-fast bacilli in sputum (not common in kids)

CXR (for cavitating lesions)

Mantoux test

27

How is tuberculosis treated?

2 RIPE 4 RI

2 months of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol

then 4 months of rifampicin and isoniazid only

28

What immunisation are people with HIV commonly given?

BCG for TB

29

What is a common parasitic infection causing child mortality?

Malaria

30

Which organism causes malaria?

Plasmodium falciparum