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Flashcards in 9/28 Quiz Deck (27)
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1

Describe how photoperiod influences the mare's cycling

Photoperiod influences the production of melatonin from pineal gland

Longer days-->lower melatonin-->horse will cycle

2

Describe the uterus when it's under the influence of:
1) progesterone
2) estrogen

1) closed cervix, high uterine tone, minimal uterine activity

2) less uterine tone, uterine edema & relaxed cervix

3

When grading the cervix, a 1 would indicate?

1= tight/closed

4

Which clinical sign is most commonly associated with endometritis?

Failure to conceive

5

Definitive diagnosis of endometritis can be made by doing?

biopsy

6

Name 4 common bacterial causes of endometritis?

Which two are likely to form a biofilm?

Strep. zooepidemicus
e. coli*
Klebsiella
Pseudomonas*

* = likely to form biofilm

7

For which equine venereal disease should you call the state vet?

Contagious equine metritis (CEM)

8

Most common cause on non-infectious abortion in horses?

Twins

9

Which type of twins (location-wise) are unlikely to be spontaneously reduced?

Bicornuate (bilateral)

10

Early embryonic death is pregnancy loss prior to ___days

45 days
*before fetal stage

11

If a pregnant mare presents with mild colic in late gestation, you should suspect?

Uterine torsion

12

You're examining an aborted fetus that has 1-2mm gray/white spots on its liver; you also notice intranuclear inclusion bodies; these findings are suggestive of?

Equine herpes virus

13

What infectious agent is likely to cause foals that are born with severe respiratory signs (interstitial pneumonia)

Equine viral arteritis

*this occurs if mare if infected when she's close to foaling

14

Which subspecies/serovar of lepto causes most of the clinical syndromes in mares?

Pomona

15

Most common pathogen causing placentitis in mares?

Streptococcus zooepidemicus

16

3 most common treatment modalities used for placentitis?

Anti-inflammatories
Antibiotics
Progesterone (Altrenogest)

17

Foals born to mares with placentitis are described as

small and sick

18

Normal, nonodorous lochia may be present in sheep and goats for how long following parturition?

3 weeks

19

Most common cause of dystocia in sheep/goats?

fetal postural abnormalities

20

Describe a "true breech" in goats/sheep

caudal longitudinal presentation
dorsosacral position
both back limbs retained beneath fetus

21

3 most common infectious cases of abortion in small ruminants?

Toxoplasma gondii
Chlamydophila abortus
Campylobacter

22

Top 4 viruses to consider when abortion occurs with fetal deformities?

Bluetongue
Akabane
Cache Valley
Border Disease

23

Which day of gestation is important in determining fetal outcome with Border Disease

Day 85

*infected before= PI lamb or abortion

*infected after= normal, weak, or stillborn

24

Most significant cause of abortion in SHEEP in North America

Characteristic finding?

Campylobacter

"gray targets" (necrotic foci) on liver

25

Generalized placentitis of cotyledons & intercodyledonary space is associated with?

Chlamydophila

26

Epididymitis in Rams is associated with?

Brucellosis

27

Finding white to yellow small areas of focal necrosis on cotyledons is characteristic of?

Toxoplasmosis

*intercotylondary areas are normal