Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (88)
In dogs, prolapsed uterus typically occurs when in relation to parturition
during (or shortly after) parturition
What hormones are shifting (and in what direction) that leads to the development of pseudopregnancy?
declining P4 in the face of rising prolactin
If an owner requests medical treatment for their dog showing signs of pseudopregnancy, what general type of drug would be indicated?
*remember, dopamine and prolactin always go in opposite directions*
A bitch presents to you with a malodorous, red/brown vaginal discharge. The owners inform you she just had puppies a few days ago but doesn't seem very interested in them recently.
Upon physical exam, she is febrile and depressed.
Based on the timeline and clinical signs, what's your top differential? What would be a good next step?
Take radiograph to rule out a retained fetus
In dogs, which form of mastitis is most serious and why?
Acute mastitis; can be life-threatening to dam
Most common isolate from dogs with mastitis
What signalment/type of dog would you expect to be affected with eclampsia/hypocalcemia
small breed dog with a large litter
*heavy lactation demands*
How does the presentation of hypocalcemia differ between dogs and cows
in dogs, it leads to tetany/tremors
in cows, flaccid paralysis (prevents ACh release)
In dogs, uterine involution is usually complete by _______ (timeframe). If this gets delayed, the dog is at risk of developing?
A 2yr old bitch presents to you for hemorrhagic vaginal discharge. After talking to the owners, you learn that she recently had her first litter of puppies about 3.5 weeks ago.
After ruling out other potential causes, you diagnose the bitch with SIPS. Is this likely to recur with subsequent pregnancies?
Most common location for placement of intraosseous catheters in canine neonates?
proximal femur (trochanteric fossa)
What 4 things are important to check for/evaluate in neonates during physical exam
anus (atresia ani)
What 2 procedures are typically done on neonates using only local anesthesia. And at what age are these usually done?
Dewclaw removal and tail docking
typically done together at around 3-6d of age
Though cattle are usually culled for aglactia, what is the treatment of choice in our other spp. (i.e. dog and horse)
Domperidone (dopamine antagonist)
What recommendations would you make to an owner who's puppy is diagnosed is puppy vaginitis in regards to treatment and future care?
tx is probably not needed (most resolve on their own)
Allow this dog to have at least her first heat cycle before spaying
In dogs, vaginal prolapse is stimulated by ______ and most commonly occurs ________?
Late proestrus (less commonly occurs near parturition)
2 reasons we recommend spay for dogs with vaginal prolapse
1) it's likely heritable so we don't want to breed these dogs
2) it will increase in severity with each subsequent estrus
In dogs, most vaginal neopalsias are _______ (malignant/benign) and the most common one is ______
In cows, vaginal prolapse typically occurs?
What is our usual tx? Are there any exceptions?
Cull (affected female AND her offspring)
Exception= embryo donors (prolapse due to high estrogen, not heritable)
When treating vaginal prolapse in cows, the Buhner technique serves to mimic the natural function of which muscle?
The minchev technique for repair of vaginal prolapse in cows anchors the dorsal vagina to which structure
In cows, which vaginal prolapse repair technique if common for embryo donor cows & allows normal breeding and parturition
In most spp. vaginal prolapse occurs _____ except for which spp.? When does it occur in them?
In most--> prepartum
Not in dogs
dogs= proestrus or estrus (when estrogen is high)
In ALL spp., uterine prolapse is considered to be ________ (it's cause)
an incident of parturition
What should be avoided in a cow with a prolapsed uterus?
movement--risk of rupturing middle uterine artery
T/F: once a cow prolapses her uterus once, she should be culled because it is likely to happen again
FALSE---no more likely to occur than in animals that have never prolapsed
Most infections of the male repro tract occur by which route?
Ascending infection (urinary pathogens)
*seminal vesiculitis, epididymitis, prostatitis
In males, orchitis most commonly occurs secondary to ____
epididymitis (which occurs secondary to ascending infection)
Which viral agent has been assoc. with Balanoposthitis in bulls?
How do Hypospadia and Epispadia differ?
Hypo= urogenital groove didn't close on the VENTRAL side of the penis
Epi= dorsal side
Most common testicular tumor of dogs and bulls?
Interstitial cell tumor
Sertoli cell tumors primarily occur in _______ testes
Which testicular neoplasia has been associated with a feminizing paraneoplastic syndrome
Sertoli cell tumor
Most common testicular tumor of aged stallions?
2 indications for exteriorizing the uterus with C-section
1) fetus emphysematous (septic uterine contents)
2) J-lube present in uterus
When closing the uterus after a C-section, what is the most important goal? What type of pattern is typically used?
NO LEAKING (tight seal)
non-penetrating, inverting pattern
Which suture pattern for unterine closure following c-section is assoc with the best maintenance of fertility post-op?
Most common indication for C-section in
1) fetal oversize
2) single or 2 puppy litter
3) uterine torsion
3 ways horse c-sections are different
1) always require general anesthesia
2) done in hospital (not field or barn)
3) MUST exteriorize uterus (prevent contamination)
In which species is a hemostatic/compressive stitch used post-c section and why
to compress subendometrial vessels
Name the 4 fetotomy cuts
pelvic division (reduction)
What is the goal when you are:
1) amputating forelimb
2) amputating the hindlimb
1) removal of scapula
2) coxofemoral luxation
A pelvic symphsiotomy can only be used in which type of cow and what 2 circumstances must be present/true?
only in heifer calfs <2yr
Must also only be MILD fetopelvic disproportion and the cow must be ambulatory
Milk proteins and eggs are commonly used for what purpose when freezing semen
*prevent structural changes in cell membrane when cooled*
T/F: the addition of antibiotics to semen is done to eliminate the presence of Brucella and Tritrichomonas
*can only control CEM in horses and Campylobacter in cattle
The biggest/most common problem with using frozen semen AI
Where in the female repro tract must frozen semen be placed during AI?
MUST go intrauterine
For what type of semen is the insemination dose the lowest? Highest?
Insemination dose for bovine if using frozen/thawed semen?
10-15 million (x10^6)
4 components of BSE?
A BSE is best done when in relation to the breeding season
What two things does a BSE not evaluate for
Which accessory sex gland, though present, isn't palpable in cattle?
1) minimum progressive motility
2) minimum normal morphology
Bulls >24months should have a scrotal circumference of at least?
Primary sperm defects occur when? What parts of sperm are normally affected
during synthesis (spermatogenesis)
head and mid-piece
Secondary sperm defects occur when? What part of sperm is usually affected
during storage or transport
Scoring for serving capacity testing is based on what 2 things?
sexual interest (mounts)
With multi-sire breeding groups, every additional bull added after the first is good for?
1/2 as many cows as the first
T/F: If a bull is found to have a corkscrew deviation of his penis while being collected using EE, you should recommend culling
*EE can sometimes cause this due to over pressure; doesn't mean it will occur with natural service..do test mating
Which species shows the most dramatic seasonal changes in SC and libido
Prior to the breeding season, mature rams should have a minimum SC of?
To be marked satisfactory, a ram must have a minimum of ____% normal morphology
*Motility standards same as cattle
SC of a Ram to be marked satisfactory
1) if 8-14months
2) if >14 months
1) at least 29 (>36 is exceptional)
2) at least 32 (>40 is exceptional)
Which reproductive condition is more common in
1) rams get Scrotal Varicocele
2) bucks get Sperm Granulomas (polled goats)
A gloved hand technique is most commonly use for collection of which spp?
What is the minimum motility and morphology for boars?
60/60 min for both
Around what age to stallions become sexually mature
*they go through puberty 12-24months
What is the definition of a satisfactory potential breeder (Stallion)
produces at least 1billion PM, morphologically normal, sperm in 2nd ejaculate at any time of year
How does Imipramine work in the stallion? Use?
Use= chemical ejaculation
Lowers the ejaculatory threshold
Standard insemination dose for horse?
500million progressively motile sperm
**This means if shipping, must ship 1 billion PMS
Most common breeding problem in stallions?
How can you determine azoospermia vs. incomplete ejaculation
measure seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase
**Will be HIGH if ejaculation was complete (>2500)
For hemospermia, what is your top differential
1) urethral tear
2) prostate problem
Most common neoplasia of stallion's external genital tract?
Which accessory sex glands does each have
1) prostate only
2) prostate and bulbourethral
Canines are most commonly collected using which technique
Manual stimulation (pressure at base of penis behind bulbus glandis)
Motility and morphology standards for canine sperm
<60% in either= decreased fertility
What disease must you ALWAYS rule out if a dog presents with orchitis
Most common testicular neoplasia in RETAINED testicles
Sertoli cell tumor
Which testicular neoplasia is almost always located in scrotal testicles
interstitial cell tumor
Which hormone acts on the prostate in the dog? What enzyme is important for its creation?
Which ejaculatory fraction is best to use for evaluation of the canine prostate
(1st is okay if dog too painful to ejaculate)
Symmetrical, non-painful enlargement of the prostate in an older, intact male dog is most likely
5=alpha reductase inhibitor
**reduces prostatic size without affecting testosterone
A dog with a sertoli cell tumor may be at risk for developing which prostatic disease?
**due to increased estrogens
What characteristics must antibiotics have if you are going to use them to treat prostatitis?
Basic & lipophilic