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1

What are our 3 general drug/hormone options for inducing parturition in most spp.?

Oxytocin
PGF2a
Corticosteroids

2

Which drug used for delaying of parturition is banned for use in food animals?

clenbuterol

3

How far along should the mare be before you consider induction?

At least 335days from breeding date

4

Concerning Mare pregnancy induction:
1) Drug of choice?
2) Timeline of its effects?
3) Drug(s) to avoid?

Oxytocin

delivery within 15-90min (RAPID)

AVOID PGF2a (compromises foal survival)

5

Most common indication for delaying parturition in mares?

Managing cases of placentitis

*Remember this is usually due to ascending infections!

6

How far along should a cow be before considering induction?

at least 262day (no more than 2 weeks before due date)

7

Which type of drug is most commonly used to induce cattle?

Which specific drug is used most commonly and how soon do we expect them to calf after administration?

Steroids

Dexamethasone; ~48hr

8

Describe the benefit of using depot corticosteroids when inducing parturition in cattle.

Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage

depot formulations more closely mimic the SLOW RISE in fetal cortisol

Good bc there's a lower incidence of RFM

doesn't give a predictable time for parturition following injection (4-26days)

9

Which combination protocol for induction of cattle offers the lowest incidence of RFM?

Depot corticosteroid followed by Dex+ PFG2a 6 days later

10

The most common complication of induction in cattle?

retained fetal membranes

11

Most commonly used tocolytic agent in cattle?

Which one would be illegal?

Epinephrine (blocks uterine contraction)

clenbuterol

12

In which spp. do we induce for efficiency/production purposes more so than for health of the dam?

Swine

trying to maximize labor/resources, reduce age differences btwn litters, etc.

13

Concerning induction in swine:
1) minimum gestation length before inducing
2) which induction protocol offers shortest farrowing window?

1) 111days (avg. 114)

2) PGF2a + oxytocin (give PGF2a first, and oxytocin 24hr later)-->birth within 6hr following oxytocin

14

Primary reason we would induce a doe or ewe?

Pregnancy toxemia (or unlikely to survive whatever concurrent illness they have)

15

Concerning induction in doe and ewe:
1) how far along must they be
2) how do the drug choices differ btwn the two spp. and why?

1) 140days (both)

2) Doe is CL dependent for entire pregnancy. so you can use PGF2a at any time

With sheep, protocols must include dexamethasone

16

Which drug is commonly used to induce in camelids? How soon does it work?

PGF2a (CL dependent entire pregnancy**)

parturition in ~20hr (8-30hr)

17

When delaying parturition in camelids, when should tx be d/c and why?

stop at day 300 of pregnancy

to avoid complications (failure of cervical dilation, poor lactation)

18

What two things are required for induction of parturition naturally?

Maturation of fetal HPA axis

Functioning placenta

19

3 important effects of estrogen during parturition

1) induces upregulation of oxytocin receptors in uterus
2) increases PGF2a production
3) increases tubular secretions-->lubrication

20

Which breed of cattle have the longest gestational length?

Bos indicus (~292d)

21

Which hereditary cause of prolonged gestation is associated with:

1) OVERSIZED calves with long hair and hooves & erupted incisors

2) SMALL calves with craniofacial deformities

3) large calves with long hair and parietal/frontal bone defects

1) fetal adrenal hypoplasia (Holstein, Ayrshires)

2) fetal pituitary aplasia (Guernsey & Scandinavian Red)

3) cerebral herniation with catlin mark (Holstein)

22

Two plants associated with prolonged gestation?

Veratrum californicum

Endophyte-infected fescue

23

How does endophyte-infected fescue prolong gestation?

ergot alkaloids it produces are dopamine agonists-->dopamine suppresses prolactin

24

The most common hydropic condition?

Hydros allantois

25

Hydrops allantois indicates a problem with the ___________ while hydros amnion develops when there is a problem with the ________

Allantois= PLACENTAL problem

Amnion= FETAL problem

26

Our two goals with seasonal breeding

1) want 90% of exposed females to become pregnant

2) want 2/3 of calves born in first 21d of calving season

27

How soon does the cow need to become pregnant again to maintain:
1) 12 month calving interval
2) 13month calving interval

1) 80 days

2) 110 days

28

What 3 reproductive metrics do we use to determine why cows might be underproducing calves?

1) average days to 1st service

2) calving to conception interval

3) cows beyond 100d with no breeding

29

What two factors can influence calving to conception interval?

Average days to 1st service
per-service conception rates

30

MRP in cattle requires secretion of what by the fetus?

interferon tau

31

After what time frame is the placenta considered retained in cows?

>12hr

32

Cow placenta:
1) gross classification
2) histologic classification

1) Cotyledonary

2) Synepitheliolchorial (epitheliochorial)

33

In cows, if placenta isn't expelled it undergoes ...?

liquefactive putrefaction (rots out)

34

What drug would be indicated for mare's grazing infected fescue? MOA?

Domperidone (dopamine antagonist)

35

4-6 weeks prior to foaling, what 3 things should you ALWAYS do?

palpate to confirm pregnancy
vaccinate (eastern, western, testus...spring vaccines)
Open caslicks

36

Presence of "waxing" on a mare's udder typically means she will foal in about _______

24-48hr

37

Stage 2 of labor in horses should last no longer than?

20-30min

38

Describe the 1,2,3 rule of equine foaling

foal standing in 1 hr
nursing by 2 hr
placenta out by 3hr

39

Most common consequence of dystocia in mares?

Retained placenta

(metritis-->laminitis-->death)

40

Other than the life of the foal or mare being in danger, what would be another indication for induction of parturition?

>200ppm Ca in udder secretions for 2 consecutive days

41

Which portion/location of the placenta is most likely to be retained

Tip of NON-GRAVID uterine horn

42

What 3 treatments are used for RFM in mare every time

1) oxytocin
2) some type of fluid distension or lavage
3) tetanus prophylaxis

43

Concerning the mare
1) describe uterus & cervix under estrogen influence
2) how fast to follicles grow

1) cervix and uterus relaxed; edema present

2) 3-5mm/day

44

4 reasons we would manipulate the equine estrus cycle

1) induce ovulation at precise time
2) short-cycling
3) synchronize groups of mares
4) hasten seasonal transition

45

Concerning ovulation induction in mares:
1) which 2 drugs do we use and their "activity" (i.e what hormone do they each act like

2) which drug produces ovulation sooner (times)

3) which drug choice would be best for a follicle >35mm

1) hCG (chorulon)--LH activity
Deslorelin (SucroMate)--GnRH activity

2) hCG produces ovulation sooner (36hr compared to 45 with other)

3) hCG

46

Best drug protocol for embryo transfer in mares? Why?

Progesterone + Estradiol (P&E)

estradiol provides greater suppression of follicular development so they will all be close to the same size--ovulation occurs at a more uniform rate

47

Why will some mares in anestrus tease?

bc progesterone is low

48

Describe the role of the photoperiod and melatonin on mare cycling

Melatonin is inhibitory on mare's HPG axis

So when photoperiod increases, there is less melatonin, meaning mare can begin to cycle

49

Which ovarian structure is not palpable on the mare

CL

50

Concerning endometrial cups:
1) what do they produce
2) why are they important
3) how long are they present

1) eCG

2) stimulates development of secondary CL (primary can't sustain pregnancy on its own)

3) 37-120 days

51

Mare's 3 barriers to outside

vulva
vestibulovaginal sphincter
Cervix

52

Clinical sign most commonly seen in mares with endometritis

failure to conceive

53

How can we definitely diagnose endometritis in the mare

Biopsy

54

4 most common bacterial isolates of endometritis in mares

Which are more commonly associated with biofilm formation?

Strep. zooepidemicus
E. coli**
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa**

**= biofilm

55

Which drugs have ecbolic effects in the mare and how can we use them to prevent endometritis?

Oxytocin & Prostaglandins (lutalyse/dinoprost & estrumate/cloprostenol)

use alone or with lavage following insemination for susceptible mares--don't use after ovulation

56

What are the 3 equine venereal diseases?

CEM
Coital exanthema (EHV-3)
Dourine

57

Which equine venereal disease is associated with copious purulent discharge 2-10d after mating and requires notification of the state vet?

CEM (contagious equine metritis)

58

Which equine venereal disease is associated with painful vesicles in the genital area and intranuclear inclusion bodies on histopath?

Coital exanthema (EHV-3)

59

When (what criteria) would you be worried about endometrial cysts interfering with fertility?

if there are 5+ cysts >1-2mm

60

Most common cause of non-infectious abortion in mares?

Twins

61

When performing manual crushing to reduce a twin, what two tx should you give prior to the procedure?

Flunixin meglumine & Regumate

**Prevent PGF release and cover progesterone in case CL gets damage-->protects the other fetus from being lost

62

What clinical sign would make you worry that a mare has aborted

Premature lactation

63

A mare presents with mild colic in late gestation, when you perform a rectal, you feel the left broad ligament running horizontally and the right ligament feels more vertical...your dx?

Uterine torsion--clockwise

64

Respiratory signs, fever, and ventral edema are clinical signs assoc. with with infectious cause of abortion in mares?

Equine viral arteritis

65

Which infectious cause of abortion in mares is zoonotic?

Leptospirosis

66

T/F: the organisms most commonly isolated from endometritis are also the most common causes of placentitis in the mare

TRUE!!!

Strep zooepi *most common*
Kelbsiella
E. col
Pseudomonas

67

What 3 types of drugs are used in managing a mare with placentitis?

Anti-inflammatories
Antibiotics
Progesterone

68

How does nocardioform abortion differ from placentitis causes? (lesion location)

Nocardioform--lesion is at bifurcation of uterus

*other placentitis is at cervical star

69

For canine breeding management, what are the magic progesterone numbers and what do they mean?

2-3ng/ml-->LH surge (she will ovulate 48hr from this time)

4-10ng/ml-->Ovulation (she will be most fertile days 2, 3, and 4 after this)

>10ng/ml-->ovulation complete

70

How soon AFTER OVULATION will a bitch whelp?

63 days

71

If performing vaginal AI on a canine, which semen type must be avoided

Frozen

*use fresh or cooled only

72

When trying to diagnose pregnancy in dogs, which hormone is not helpful and why?

Progesterone---will be high no matter what

73

Why is ace contraindicated for dogs with pseudopregnancy

promotes prolactin--worsens lactation signs

74

Two most common causes of infertility in the bitch

timing and semen quality

75

If a bitch is aborting, what are your top two infectious differentials?

Brucellosis
Herpesvirus

76

What 3 clinical findings/diseases would prompt you to test for brucellosis

Abortion
Orchitis
Discospondylitis

77

During what two time frames is herpesvirus a problem for dogs?

during last 3 weeks of gestation
during first 3 weeks of neonatal life

78

In dogs, when progesterone (or temperature) drops, you can expect her to whelp within.....

24-48hr

79

Normal uterine involution in the dog takes how long?

~3 months

80

An owner calls and tells you her pregnant dog has a weird green discharge coming from her vagina, when you ask if it smells, she said "not really"; You tell her it sounds like normal discharge that occurs prior to the puppies being born. You advise her to call you back if she doesn't see a puppy born within....

1hr

*lochia--indicates placental separation

81

2 treatment options for a dog with non-obstructive dystocia

oxytocin (2 doses max)
IV calcium

82

Which cause of dystocia in the canine is not responsive to oxytocin

Uterine inertia (both primary and secondary)

83

Most reliable indicators of queening?

breeding dates and behavior

84

Two common causes of obstructive dystocia in queens?

Uterine torsion
Fetal oversize

85

Concerning canine pyometra:
1) Most common isolate
2) most common clinical presentation/signs

1) E. coli

2) ADR; PU/PD