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1

Which species are:
1) seasonally polyestrous
2) polyestrous

1) mare, ewe, doe
2) cow, sow

*Dogs= monoestrous

2

Name 2 drugs with GnRH activity

Gonadorelin (Cytorelin)
Deslorelin (Sucromate)

3

Regumate is a drug with what hormone?

Progesterone

Regumate= Altrenogest

4

Name 2 drugs with PGF2a activity

Dinoprost (Lutalyse)
Cloprostenol (Estrumate)

5

Which species shows a sustained LH rise

Mare

6

Name 3 unique features of the dog's estrus cycle

1) progresses the same whether pregnant or not (~63 day diestrus)

2) progesterone rises PRIOR to ovulation

3) ovulates a primary oocyte (needs 2 days before can be fertilized)

7

Which spp. shows a slightly shorter estrus cycle?

Ewe (17days compared to 21)

8

Comparing duration of estrus:
1) which spp. shows shortest duration
2) which shows longest

1) cow--15hr

2) mare--7days

*dog & cat= 9days

9

Which species have oviductal papilla

Mares and camelids

10

Which immunoglobulin predominats in the LOWER repro tract?

IgG

11

3 ways commensal vaginal bacteria prevent infection

1) reduce pH
2) compete for attachment sites
3) produce inhibitory substances

12

How do hormones influence immunity of repro tract?

Estrogen--uterus more resistant; increased neutrophils and macrophages with open cervix (drainage)

Progesterone--more susceptible

13

How does CEH differ between large animals and the canine?

In large animals, it's due to hyperestrogenism

In canines, it's due to prolonged stimulation by progesterone (+/- bacterial component)

14

Major product produced by:
1) sertoli cells
2) interstitial cells (Leydig)

1) AMH
2) Testosterone

15

Which protein/signaling molecule is important in the female (suppresses testicular development)

DAX-1

16

Equine male pseudohermaphrodites are the product of _________ _________

androgen insensitivity

17

Most common ovarian tumor of large animals (Mare)

Granulosa cell tumor

18

Current gold standard for diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor in the mare?

Measuring AMH--almost always elevated in mares with GCT

19

For cows, when does ovulation occur (in relation to estrus) and when is best time for AI?

24-32hr after onset of estrus

12-18hr after onset of STANDING heat (AM/PM rule)

20

In which species is AI difficult due to complexity of cervix

Sheep

21

In swine, when does ovulation occurs (in relation to estrus) and when is best time to inseminate?

Ovulation occurs during last 1/3 of estrus

Best to inseminate in MIDDLE of estrus

22

Concerning transabdominal palpation, when is is best to palpate:
1) dogs
2) cats

1) 20-28 days (accuracy decreases after 35d)

2) 15-25 days (best after 21 days...doesn't say when accuracy decreases)

23

Rectal-abdominal palpation using a glass rod is primarily used for which species? During what time frame is it most accurate?

Sheep
85-109days

24

When is B-mode ultrasound most accurate in:
1) dogs
2) cats
3) cattle
4) horses

1) 27 days
2) 20 days
3) 25 days
4) 14 days

25

Describe the difference in placentome appearance between small ruminants and cattle

Small--concave

cattle--convex

26

A radiographic diagnosis of pregnancy is best delayed until?

days 50-55 (allows fetuses time to ossify)

*dog= early as 42 days
*cat= 26-40 days

27

What pregnancy detection factor is secreted by trophoblasts?

Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs)

28

Time frame for presence of endometrial cups in the mare? What do they produce?

38-120 days

Equine chorionic gonadotropin

29

2 benefits of testing for Estrogen sulfate?

1) can be detected in feces--good for wildlife

2) a positive test indicates a VIABLE fetus (intact feto-placental unit)

30

T/F: Relaxin is an appropriate pregnancy test for dogs but NOT cats

FALSE--also acceptable for cats

31

During what phase of estrous is the cow developing a CL?
When does it end?

Metestrous (lasts 5-6 days)

Ends when CH becomes CL

32

When does diestrus end for the cow?

End with luteolysis

33

Describe how a cow's uterine tone corresponds to the dominant hormone

Toned--estradiol
Quiescent--progesterone

Flaccid--anestrus (NOT CYCLING)

34

Which luteal structure persists the longest?

CL3

35

At what time do the following things/structures become detectable:
1) fetal heart beat
2) membrane slip
3) placentomes

1) day 25

2) day 30-35

3) day 90 (dime-sized)

36

It's considered direct retraction of the uterus if what structure is grabbed?

Ventral intercornual ligament

37

4 cardinal signs of pregnancy

Fetus
Placentomes
amnionic vesicle
membrane slip

38

Which structure is most accurate for gestational staging? When can it be palpated?

Amnionic vesicle
30-35 days

39

3 areas/ways we attempt to control bovine estrous cycle

1) control length of luteal phase
2) control timing of follicular wave emergence
3) control LH surge and ovulation

*Timed AI requires all 3!!

40

When GnRH is given, you can expect a new follicular wave to emerge when

in ~2days

41

Describe the ovsynch protocol

GnRH is given on day 1 to either ovulate the dominant follicle or stimulate a new follicular wave

7 days later, give PGF2a to cause luteolysis

2 days later give second shot of GnRH to induce LH surge and ovulation

Breed ~12hrs after second GnRH injection

42

What type of penis:
1) bulls
2) stallions
3) Boars

1) fibroelastic
2) musculocavernosus
3) fibroelastic

43

Where does each species ejaculate:
1) bull
2) stallion
3) buck/ram
4) boar
5) dog
6) camelids

1) anterior vagina (onto external cervical os)

2) into/onto external cervical os

3) onto external cervical os

4) into cervix

5) anterior vagina

6) intrauterine

44

The stallion's "bell" is an extension of?

Corpus spongiosum penis (CSP)

*serves to prevent leakage of sperm

45

Which species has rapid intromission/ejaculation and shows lordosis of lumbar spine upon ejaculation

Buck/ram
(timing= less than 1 second)

46

Which species has the largest volume of ejaculate?

Swine (80-450ml)

47

Which portion of the dog's penis is responsible for the coital tie?

Pars bulbus glandis (expands after intromission)

48

3 methods for dealing with mismating

1) prevent embryonic/fetal development
2) destroy conceptus
3) destroy CL

49

At which point is PGF2a ineffective in cattle and why?

after 120days
placental progesterone can maintain pregnancy (CL not needed)

50

In which species is the pregnancy ALWAYS dependent on CL? What does this mean?

How are sheep different?

Goats
means PGF2a will be effective at any time

Sheep--can only use PGF2a up to ~60days

51

It's considered embryonic death if it occurs prior to day ____ in cattle or day ____ in horses

day 42 (cow)

Day 38 (mare)

52

What defines the start of the "fetal period"

placental attachment

53

For which infectious agent would a positive maternal titer be diagnostic?

Brucella abortus

54

3 outcomes of fetal death

1) Retention (mummification or maceration)
2) Expulsion
3) Resorption

55

Which substance, produced at fetal-maternal interface, supports B. abortus growth?

Erythritol

56

Which type of leptospirosis (host adapted or non) is more likely to cause abortion STORMS

non-host adapted

57

Which infectious cause of abortion in cattle causes midterm abortion and can be maintained within the herd via vertical transmission?

Neospora caninum

58

2 potential outcomes for a fetus infected with N. caninum

1) death/abortion

2) becomes persistently infected

59

Most common viral cause of abortion?

IBR abortion

60

In bovine, placenta should detatch and be expelled by?

12hrs after parturition

61

Landmarks for uterine involution
1) when is uterus palpably normal
2) when is uterus histologically normal

1) 28-30days

2) 45 days

62

What are the 3 post-partum periods/phases?

1) puerperal period
2) intermediate period
3) post-ovulatory period

63

Puerperal period lasts from parturition until....?

pituitary regain sensitivity to GnRH (~10-14d)

64

The intermediate period lasts until...?

first postpartum ovulation

65

How does the bacterial population change from the puerperal period to post-ovulatory period?

transitions from aerobic to anaerobic

66

What two factors predispose to pyometra in cattle?

contamination at calving + early ovulation

67

What two structural things are present when a cow has pyometra?

Closed cervix
CL

68

Name the 5 late-developing embryologic structures

1) palate
2) cerebellum
3) urogenital structures
4) lens
5) muscle/bone/joints

69

Crooked calf disease is associated with maternal ingestion of?

Lupine!

70

Which breed of cattle is affected by arthrohryposis mutliplex?

Angus

71

Principle toxin of Veratrum Californicum?

How does it cause cyclopia?

Cyclopamine

cyclopia in lambs if ingested by ewe on day 14 of gestation

72

Sensitivity vs. specificity

Sensitivity---ability for the test to determine which animals HAVE the disease (false negative rate)

Specificity--ability for the test to identify animals that do NOT have the disease (false positive rate)

73

Ideal BCS for beef cattle?

6

74

A cystic structure is one that is ___cm in diameter and persists for _____days

>2cm; persists for >10day

75

Most common clinical presentation of cows with cystic ovarian disease?

Anestrus (failure to cycle)

76

T/F: scrotal circumference of the sire can impact his heifer's puberty

True

larger circumference= earlier puberty

77

During what time frame of gestation does mummification occur in cattle?

3-8 months
(earlier=resorption)

78

Does mummification or maceration impact future fertility the worse?

Maceration has worse long-term impact

79

What are the 3 stages of parturition?

Stage 1--final changes/preparation

Stage 2--delivery of fetus(es)

Stage 3--expulsion of placenta and uterine involution