Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (79)
Which species are:
1) seasonally polyestrous
1) mare, ewe, doe
2) cow, sow
Name 2 drugs with GnRH activity
Regumate is a drug with what hormone?
Name 2 drugs with PGF2a activity
Which species shows a sustained LH rise
Name 3 unique features of the dog's estrus cycle
1) progresses the same whether pregnant or not (~63 day diestrus)
2) progesterone rises PRIOR to ovulation
3) ovulates a primary oocyte (needs 2 days before can be fertilized)
Which spp. shows a slightly shorter estrus cycle?
Ewe (17days compared to 21)
Comparing duration of estrus:
1) which spp. shows shortest duration
2) which shows longest
*dog & cat= 9days
Which species have oviductal papilla
Mares and camelids
Which immunoglobulin predominats in the LOWER repro tract?
3 ways commensal vaginal bacteria prevent infection
1) reduce pH
2) compete for attachment sites
3) produce inhibitory substances
How do hormones influence immunity of repro tract?
Estrogen--uterus more resistant; increased neutrophils and macrophages with open cervix (drainage)
How does CEH differ between large animals and the canine?
In large animals, it's due to hyperestrogenism
In canines, it's due to prolonged stimulation by progesterone (+/- bacterial component)
Major product produced by:
1) sertoli cells
2) interstitial cells (Leydig)
Which protein/signaling molecule is important in the female (suppresses testicular development)
Equine male pseudohermaphrodites are the product of _________ _________
Most common ovarian tumor of large animals (Mare)
Granulosa cell tumor
Current gold standard for diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor in the mare?
Measuring AMH--almost always elevated in mares with GCT
For cows, when does ovulation occur (in relation to estrus) and when is best time for AI?
24-32hr after onset of estrus
12-18hr after onset of STANDING heat (AM/PM rule)
In which species is AI difficult due to complexity of cervix
In swine, when does ovulation occurs (in relation to estrus) and when is best time to inseminate?
Ovulation occurs during last 1/3 of estrus
Best to inseminate in MIDDLE of estrus
Concerning transabdominal palpation, when is is best to palpate:
1) 20-28 days (accuracy decreases after 35d)
2) 15-25 days (best after 21 days...doesn't say when accuracy decreases)
Rectal-abdominal palpation using a glass rod is primarily used for which species? During what time frame is it most accurate?
When is B-mode ultrasound most accurate in:
1) 27 days
2) 20 days
3) 25 days
4) 14 days
Describe the difference in placentome appearance between small ruminants and cattle
A radiographic diagnosis of pregnancy is best delayed until?
days 50-55 (allows fetuses time to ossify)
*dog= early as 42 days
*cat= 26-40 days
What pregnancy detection factor is secreted by trophoblasts?
Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs)
Time frame for presence of endometrial cups in the mare? What do they produce?
Equine chorionic gonadotropin
2 benefits of testing for Estrogen sulfate?
1) can be detected in feces--good for wildlife
2) a positive test indicates a VIABLE fetus (intact feto-placental unit)
T/F: Relaxin is an appropriate pregnancy test for dogs but NOT cats
FALSE--also acceptable for cats
During what phase of estrous is the cow developing a CL?
When does it end?
Metestrous (lasts 5-6 days)
Ends when CH becomes CL
When does diestrus end for the cow?
End with luteolysis
Describe how a cow's uterine tone corresponds to the dominant hormone
Flaccid--anestrus (NOT CYCLING)
Which luteal structure persists the longest?
At what time do the following things/structures become detectable:
1) fetal heart beat
2) membrane slip
1) day 25
2) day 30-35
3) day 90 (dime-sized)
It's considered direct retraction of the uterus if what structure is grabbed?
Ventral intercornual ligament
4 cardinal signs of pregnancy
Which structure is most accurate for gestational staging? When can it be palpated?
3 areas/ways we attempt to control bovine estrous cycle
1) control length of luteal phase
2) control timing of follicular wave emergence
3) control LH surge and ovulation
*Timed AI requires all 3!!
When GnRH is given, you can expect a new follicular wave to emerge when
Describe the ovsynch protocol
GnRH is given on day 1 to either ovulate the dominant follicle or stimulate a new follicular wave
7 days later, give PGF2a to cause luteolysis
2 days later give second shot of GnRH to induce LH surge and ovulation
Breed ~12hrs after second GnRH injection
What type of penis:
Where does each species ejaculate:
1) anterior vagina (onto external cervical os)
2) into/onto external cervical os
3) onto external cervical os
4) into cervix
5) anterior vagina
The stallion's "bell" is an extension of?
Corpus spongiosum penis (CSP)
*serves to prevent leakage of sperm
Which species has rapid intromission/ejaculation and shows lordosis of lumbar spine upon ejaculation
(timing= less than 1 second)
Which species has the largest volume of ejaculate?
Which portion of the dog's penis is responsible for the coital tie?
Pars bulbus glandis (expands after intromission)
3 methods for dealing with mismating
1) prevent embryonic/fetal development
2) destroy conceptus
3) destroy CL
At which point is PGF2a ineffective in cattle and why?
placental progesterone can maintain pregnancy (CL not needed)
In which species is the pregnancy ALWAYS dependent on CL? What does this mean?
How are sheep different?
means PGF2a will be effective at any time
Sheep--can only use PGF2a up to ~60days
It's considered embryonic death if it occurs prior to day ____ in cattle or day ____ in horses
day 42 (cow)
Day 38 (mare)
What defines the start of the "fetal period"
For which infectious agent would a positive maternal titer be diagnostic?
3 outcomes of fetal death
1) Retention (mummification or maceration)
Which substance, produced at fetal-maternal interface, supports B. abortus growth?
Which type of leptospirosis (host adapted or non) is more likely to cause abortion STORMS
Which infectious cause of abortion in cattle causes midterm abortion and can be maintained within the herd via vertical transmission?
2 potential outcomes for a fetus infected with N. caninum
2) becomes persistently infected
Most common viral cause of abortion?
In bovine, placenta should detatch and be expelled by?
12hrs after parturition
Landmarks for uterine involution
1) when is uterus palpably normal
2) when is uterus histologically normal
2) 45 days
What are the 3 post-partum periods/phases?
1) puerperal period
2) intermediate period
3) post-ovulatory period
Puerperal period lasts from parturition until....?
pituitary regain sensitivity to GnRH (~10-14d)
The intermediate period lasts until...?
first postpartum ovulation
How does the bacterial population change from the puerperal period to post-ovulatory period?
transitions from aerobic to anaerobic
What two factors predispose to pyometra in cattle?
contamination at calving + early ovulation
What two structural things are present when a cow has pyometra?
Name the 5 late-developing embryologic structures
3) urogenital structures
Crooked calf disease is associated with maternal ingestion of?
Which breed of cattle is affected by arthrohryposis mutliplex?
Principle toxin of Veratrum Californicum?
How does it cause cyclopia?
cyclopia in lambs if ingested by ewe on day 14 of gestation
Sensitivity vs. specificity
Sensitivity---ability for the test to determine which animals HAVE the disease (false negative rate)
Specificity--ability for the test to identify animals that do NOT have the disease (false positive rate)
Ideal BCS for beef cattle?
A cystic structure is one that is ___cm in diameter and persists for _____days
>2cm; persists for >10day
Most common clinical presentation of cows with cystic ovarian disease?
Anestrus (failure to cycle)
T/F: scrotal circumference of the sire can impact his heifer's puberty
larger circumference= earlier puberty
During what time frame of gestation does mummification occur in cattle?
Does mummification or maceration impact future fertility the worse?
Maceration has worse long-term impact