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Flashcards in 9-4 Gram (+) RODS Deck (23)
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1

A: 7 Characteristics of [Bacillus Anthracis]

A: 
1) [Spore forming - BOX CAR shaped rod]  
2) Widespread in nature
3)Prefers aerobic conditions
4) NON-MOTILE (all other Bacillus are motile) 
5) [NON-Hemolytic] 
6) [PCN susceptible] 
7) [Protein Capsule made of [Poly-D-Glutamic Acid] ]

2

How does [Bacillus Anthracis] clinically manifest via CUTANEOUS exposure (3) 

Cutaneous:
1. Painless papule
2.  Ulcer surrounded by vesicles
3.  Necrotic eschar 

3

How does [Bacillus Anthracis] clinically manifest via INGESTED/GI exposure: 

A: Upper GI

B: Lower GI (3) 

C: Mortality Rate 

A: Upper GI
– Ulcers in mouth and esophagus

B: Lower GI
Terminal ileum most commonly affected
– N/V/bloody diarrhea
---Malaise 

C: Mortality 100%

4

How does [Bacillus Anthracis] clinically manifest via INHALATIONAL exposure (3) 

A: Onset Time

B: Initial Sx

C: Descrie 2nd Stage of [Inhalational Anthrax] (2) 

D: Shock and DEATH occurs within ___ days unless treatment is initiated ______, even tho _____ disease is rare. 
______ symptoms only  occur in 50% of patients

A: Prolonged latent period (2 months or more)

B:  Initial symptoms are nonspecific:
 (Fever, SOB, cough, HA, vomiting, chills, chest and abdominal pain)

C: Secondstage
–  [Rapidly worsening fever] w/ edema 
-enlargement of mediastinal lymph modes (responsible for widened mediastinum on CXR)

D:  Shock and death occurs within 3 days unless treatment is initiated immediately even tho pulmonary disease is rare. Meningeal symptoms occur in 50% of patients

5

B: How dangerous is [Bacillus Anthracis] 

C: Where does the bacteria normally live (2)?  

D: Where should Docs obtain sample from (4) 

B: [Category A BIOTHREAT AGENT]

 

C: Contaminated soil or infected animal products (such as wool ---> [Wool Sorter's Dz] 

 

D: Skin / Blood / Sputum / CSF

6

Name the 2 AEROBIC Gram POSITIVE Rods that can cause Food Poisoning

1. Bacillus Cereus

2. [Listeria Monocytonegenes] (which is a Facultative AnAerobe)

7

Characteristics of [Listeria Monocytonegenes] (5)

1. Non-spore forming - Gram POSITIVE ROD

2. Part of Fecal Flora for many animals 

3. [Tumbling "Umbrella" Motility] 

4. Can Move at RT but [CAN NOT MOVE AT 37ºC]

5. Grows in 1-2 Days as [small gray-white colonies]

8

A: 3 Food Groups Commonly associated with LISTERIA Infection/Contamination

A: 
-[Soft cheeses and cold cuts]
-“Ready to eat” foods 
-smoked seafood

9

What are the 3 Steps for [Listeria Monocytonegenes] Pathogenesis

1st: Bacteria invade epithelial cells, M cells, macrophages by [internalin protein]

2nd: Bacteria are engulfed in vacuole and produce listeriolysin, at which phospholipases escapes from phagosome

3rd:  With the help of the [ActA gene], host cell actin is used to move Listeria into adjacent cells without exposure to immune system

10

Why are pts with defects in [Cellular Immunity] more susceptible to [Listeria Monocytogenes]?

Since  [Listeria Monocytogenes] moves between adjacent cells using [ActA gene - ACTIN ROCKETS], [Humoral Antibody Immunity] is no good-----> 
Pt with deficiencies in [Cellular immunity] are more susceptible to SEVERE LISTERIA INFECTION because that's the only defense against [inside-cell infection]. 

11

A: List the 3 patient populations most at risk for [Listeria Monocytogenes] Infection

 

B: Describe their Symptoms

1. Neonates
a) Early-onset disease: acquired transplacentally in utero, = disseminated abscesses and granulomas in multiple organs
b)  Late-onset disease: acquired at or shortly after birth presents as [meningitis with septicemia]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.   Elderly
–  influenza-like illness with or without gastroenteritis
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.   Pregnant women or [patients with cell-mediated immune defects]
 = bacteremia /hypotension / meningitis

12

A: 6 Characteristics of [Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae]

B: Incubation time 

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae:
1.  Gram positive rods that form long hairlike filaments 

2. Microaerophilic/ facultative anaerobe

3.  Small, grayish, ALPHA hemolytic colonies

4.  Catalase neg, 
5. non-motile
6. produces H2S on triple sugar iron agar (TSI)

 

B:  2-3 days incubation due to slow growth

13

A: Where is [Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae] typically found? (3) 

B: Where and which animal does it like to colonize (5) 

C: Which humans get the infection? How? 

A: Ubiquitous in soil and groundwater, distributed
worldwide (human disease is uncommon)

B: Recovered from tonsils and digestive tract of mammals, birds and fish.
•  Colonization high in swine and turkeys

C: Human infection acquired from animals, mostly occupational: butchers, meat processors, farmers, poultry workers, fish handlers and veterinarians
C2:  Cutaneous infections typically develop after the organism
is inoculated subcutaneously

14

A: Describe the 2 Forms of Human Infection for  [Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae]

B: Tx

•  Two forms of human infection
1. Erysipeloid: localized skin infection, on fingers or hands and appears violaceous with a raised edge. Slowly spreads peripherally as discoloration fades. Suppuration is uncommon (separates from streptococcal erysipelas)

2.  Septicemic form: uncommon, when present frequently associated with endocarditis


B:  Treatment – Penicillin 

15

A: 3 Characteristics of Corynebacterium

B: This bacteria is ubiquitous in _____ and ______

C: [Corynebacterium Diphtheriae] ____ _______         is carried in a ______

Characteristics of Corynebacterium

1. Clumps of organisms resembling Chinese “letters”
2.  Grows aerobic or facultatively anaerobic
3. Small white non hemolytic colonies

B: This bacteria is ubiquitous in PLANTS and ANIMALS

C: [Corynebacterium Diphtheriae] TOXIN GENE is carried in a BACTERIOPHAGE

16

What 3 Abx do you use to treat [Corynebacterium Diphtheriae]

" Treat Diphtheriae with PEAs" 

1. Penicillin

2. Erythromycin 

3. Antitoxin 

17

[ Corynebacterium jeikeium] organisms are resistant to most ______ B: What abx do you use to treat this

[ Corynebacterium jeikeium] organisms are resistant to most antibiotics, except vancomycin

18

A: 3 Main Characteristics of [Arcanobacterium hemolyticum]

B: 2 Groups it can be isolated from 

C: Sx (5) 

Characteristics of
Arcanobacterium hemolyticum
1. Non-spore forming Gram-positive rod producing irregular, club- shaped, curved or “V” formation

2. Catalase-negative

3. Beta hemolytic (colonies look similar to [Strep Pyogenes Group A] on blood agar) 


B: -Isolated mostly from young adults (15-25 Y.O.) 
-isolated from wounds, abscesses and blood of patients with septicemia and endocarditis

C: 
-symptomatic pharyngitis, 
-fever, 
-cutaneous rash, 
-some with pseudomembranes pharynx/tonsils
-submandibular lymphadenopathy

 

"A Young V-shaped Boy, that positively hated Cats, boarded the Ark after discovering a septicemic abscess"

19

A: [Aerobic Actinomycetes] CHARCTERISTICS (3) 

B: Where are they found (2) 

C: List the Organisms found in this group (5) 

" [Aerobic AcinomyCetesNeed Real Therapy "

[Aerobic Actinomycetes] - CHARACTERISTICS 
1.  Aerobic gram-positive RODS 
2. catalase-positive 
3. can colonize animals and humans 

B: are found commonly in soil and decaying vegetation.

C: 
-Nocardia
-Rhodococcus 
-Tropheryma

20

A: Characteristics of [NOCARDIA - Aerobic Actinomycetes] specifically (5) 

 

B: Incubation 

How are Exogenous infections acquired? (2) 

-Pulmonary diseases
-1º or 2º cutaneous infections 
-2º CNS infections (brain abscess) 

 

B: Sulfonamides and Proper wound care 

21

What Dz are the [Rhodococcus - Aerobic Actinomycetes] associated with (4)

-Pulmonary diseases, 
-opportunistic infect.- wound infect.,,
-opportunistic infect. - peritonitis
-opportunistic infect. - traumatic endophthalmitis )

 

22

A: [WHIPPLE'S DISEASE] is caused by what bacteria?

B: What class does it belong to?

A: [Tropheryma - Aerobic Actinomycetes]

 

B: Aerobic Actinomycetes

23

Which class of Abx is Listeria COMPLETELY RESISTANT to?

Cephalosporins