9-9 Anaerobic Bacteria & Chlamydia/Mycoplasma/Legionella Flashcards Preview

M2 PATHO EXAM 3 > 9-9 Anaerobic Bacteria & Chlamydia/Mycoplasma/Legionella > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9-9 Anaerobic Bacteria & Chlamydia/Mycoplasma/Legionella Deck (18)
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1

A: Gas Gangrene occurs with [Clostridium _______] and occurs with [TRAUMA TO _______ TISSUE]. Give an example

B: Type ___ toxin is the most common cause. How does this toxin work? (2)

B2: Can this bacteria produce ENDOtoxin?

C: Onset of [Gas Gangrene] Time

D: Tx (3)

A: Gas Gangrene occurs with [Clostridium Perfringens] and occurs with [TRAUMA TO DEVITALIZED TISSUE]. (such as Deep penetrating military wounds)

B: Type A toxin is the most common cause = [Phospholipase C Lecithinase] that lyses inflammatory cells, causes [myonecrosis] and is hemolytic

B2: Can also produce ENDOtoxin if germinated in large #

C: [Rapid Onset of 6-72 Hr]

D: Tx

1) [IV Penicillin]

2) DEBRIDEMENT

3) Clindamycin for PCN allergic pts

2

A: Sx of [Clostridium Tetani] infection (4)

B: Which sx occurs when [Orbicularis Oris] muscle involuntarily increases its ____

C: Tx (3)

1. [Trismus Lockjaw]

2. [Risus Sardonicus] "Evil Smile"

3. Opisthotonus

4. Potential Respiratory Obstruction

B: [Risus Sardonicus] occurs when [Orbicularis Oris] muscle involuntarily increases its tone

C: Tx

"Tetanus HAS a tx" 

1. [Human Tetanus Immunoglobulin]

2. Airway Support 

3. Sedation 

3

[Clostridium Botulinum]

A: Which serotypes cause human dz (4)

B: -[Clostridium Botulinum] toxin is coded by a _______ -It Inhibits _____ release ---> [_______ _______ Paralysis] -[Clostridium Botulinum] toxin is [_______ _______ Sensitive]

C: Sx (4)

D: Other Dx this can be confused with: (4)

E: Tx

[Clostridium Botulinum]

A: (Serotypes A / B / E / F) cause human dz

B: -[Clostridium Botulinum] toxin is coded by a BACTERIOPHAGE -Inhibits AcH release ---> [DESCENDING Flaccid Paralysis] -[Clostridium Botulinum] toxin is [Heat Labile Sensitive]

C: -[nausea / diarrhea] -dry mouth -[DESCENDING Flaccid Paralysis w/ normal HR and temp] - [ Wound Botulism]

D: Other Dx this can be confused with: TEMg

1. [Myasthenia Gravis] 2. [Eaton Lambert] 3. [Tick Paralysis] 4. [Guillarin - Barre]

E: Tx Antitoxin

4

[Clostridium Difficile] 

Tx (5) 

Tx for [Clostridium Difficile] 
1. Metronidazole PO
2. Vancomycin PO
3. Cholestyramine (binds to Toxin) 
4. [Colon Resection]
5. Lactobacillus transfer via [fecal enema] 

5

 

Propionobacterium acnes - PBA

A:   _____[fast/slow] growing AnAerobe that's a Common Contaminant in _____ _____

B: –  Cause of infection: (3) 

C:  Treatment 

D: Which abx is contraindicated 

 

 

Propionobacterium acnes- PBA (single)
A: •  Slow growing AnAerobe that's a Common Contaminant in blood cultures

B: –  Cause of infection:
-  Prosthetic devices or hardware  
- Opportunistic infections
- Acne

C:  Treatment – if indicated
•  Penicillin 

D: DO NOT USE metronidazole!!

 

6

 

[Bacteroides Fragilis] Family: 
A: Characterisitics (4) 

B: Hallmark of [Bacteroides Fragilis] Infection =_______

B2: Why does this sx form? 

C: Virulence Factors (3) 

D: Endotoxin? 

 

 

[Bacteroides Fragilis] Family: 

"Bacteroides characteristics are EF'N Nuts!"

A: Characterisitics

1) ENRICHED MEDIA NEEDED

2) Flora of Colon 

3) Non-Spore forming
4) Non-Motile
B: Hallmark of [Bacteroides Fragilis] Infection = [MIXED Abscess w/aerobes and AnAerobes] 

B2: Abscess is [encapsulated pus] and inflammatory rxn to infection 

C: Virulence Factors= CPS
-SOD [ super oxide dismutase] --> O2 tolerance
-Catalase
-[Polysaccharide capsule] 

D: has a DEFECTIVE ENDOTOXIN 

 

7

 

A1:Where are [Bacteroides Fragilis] more commonly recovered from during infection? (4) 

A2: What is the AnAerobe to Aerobe mix? 

 

[Bacteroides Fragilis] are most commonly recovered from 
*Intraabdominal infections (more AnAerobe) 
*Female Genital Tract (more AnAerobe)
*[Skin and Soft Tissue Infections] (more AnAerobe) 

*Aspiration PNA (MIXED) 

 

8

 

A: [______ ______] are the 2nd caused of Brain Abscess

A2: The Infection is (mixed vs. single)
•  
B: Where do they normally reside (3)? 

C: Gram Stain? [Aerobic vs. AnAerobe]? 

D: Pathogensis = ______ formation – VERY SIMILAR TO ______ but are [non-encapsulated] and require ______ media

E: Mechanism? 

 

 

A: [Prevotella species] are the 2nd caused of Brain Abscess

A2: Infection is (mixed)
•  
B: Residents of 
1. Mouth (Prevotella melaninogenica)  
2. GI Tract (Prevotella bivia and disiens)
3. Pelvis  

C: Gram negative / strict AnAerobes

D: Pathogenesis =  abscess formation – VERY SIMILAR TO BACTEROIDES but are [non-encapsulated] and require enriched media

E: mechanism unknown 

 

9

Fusobacterium (mixed or single) –  nucleatum 
A: Dzs (6) 

B: Tx (3) 

 

Fusobacterium (mixed or single) –  F. nucleatum
Dzs: 

"Fusobacterium can B L E A C H You! and you Treat it with PAM " 

1. Brain Abscess

2. Lung Abscess

3. Empyema 

4. Aspiration PNA

5. Chronic Otitis Media

6. Hepatic Abscess

 

B: Tx = PAM

*Piperacillin + Tazobactam

* [Ampicillin + Sulfabactam] 

*Metronidazole

 

10

Fusobacterium (mixed or single) –  NECROphorum 

A: Dz (2)  

B: What's special about this one? 

C: Tx (3) 

–  [Fusobacterim NECROphorum]
•  Lemierre’s syndrome/ post anginal sepsis
•  widespread metastatic infection

B:   Highly virulent – POTENT ENDOTOXIN

C: Tx PAM

*Piperacillin + Tazobactam

*[Ampicillin + Sulfabactam] 

*Metronidazole

11

A: BACTEROIDES ABX (4) 

B: Which Abx CAN'T you use

What are the Abx for Bacteroides: 

[PAM + Carbapenem] 

1) Piperacillin + Tazobactam

2) [Ampicillin + Sulfabactam]

3) Metornidazole 

4) Carbapenems 


B: CAN'T USE PENICILLIN 

12

3 Strains of Chlamydia

[Chlamydia trachomatis]

[Chlamydia pneumoniae] --> WAP [Walking Atypical PNA] 

[Chlamydia Psittaci] (acquired from inhaling Parrot droppings)

13

**[Chlamydia Trachomatis - (A to C)] can cause ________

A1. ________ and ________---> scarring and vascularization 
A2: LEADING CAUSE OF ________ WORLDWIDE

B: Tx (3) 

**[Chlamydia Trachomatis - (A to C)] can cause TRACHOMA

A1. [Chronic Conjunctivitis] and [Eyelid curling]---> scarring and vascularization 
A2: LEADING CAUSE OF BLINDNESS WORLDWIDE

 

B: Tx = "You need SAT to treat [Chlamydia (A-C)] " 
1. [Tetracycline 1% Ointment] (also use for [Neonatal Inclusion Conjunctivitis] from (D-K))

2. Azithromycin 

3. Surgery 

14

How do you lab dx [Chlamydia Psittachi] ?

Complement Fixation -4 Fold INC or IgM > 1:16

15

A: What's the Smallest organism grown in cell free medium?

B: What can you stain it with, if desired? 

C: Pathogenesis of this organism 

 

[MycoPLASMA Pneumoniae] 

B: Fluorescent Antibodies 

C: Binds to [oligosaccharide receptors] and Acts like a superantigen, recruiting [TNF/ IL1/ IL6] ---> INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE 

 

16

[Mycoplasma HOMINUS]
A: Common isolate in ________ _______ and is the 
 Cause of fever following ______ or _______
  
B: Sx (4) 

C: What do you diagnose with

D: Tx (3) 

E: DO NOT USE _______ 

 

Mycoplasma hominus
A: Common isolate in bacterial vaginosis and is the 
 Cause of fever following abortion or [post partum endometritis]
  
B: Associated with:

"NOTS get Mycoplasma HOMINUS"
- [tubo-ovarian abscess]
-salpingitis
-Opportunistic infection 
-[Neonatal CNS Problems]

C: Diagnosis: mycoplasma broth

D: Treatment: 
*tetracycline, 
*clindamycin, 
*chloramphenicol;

E: DO NOT USE MACROLIDES 

 

17

3 Demographics at risk for Legionella Infection

1. Transplant Organ Recipient 
2. Cigarette Smoking
3. Chronic Lung Dz

18

Legionella Pathogenesis 

A: Transmission 

B: Pathogenesis 

C: How does it kill cells? 

D: Immunity for this? 

E: What Microscopy do you use for Legionella? 

 

Legionella: Pathogenesis
A: infectious AEROSOLS 

B: [Legionella OMP (porin)] binds to [C3b complement receptor] on [mononuclear phagocytes] ---> Phagocytosis
-After Phagocytosis, Legionella inhibits phagolysosome fusion→intracellular multiplication

C:   Kill cell with lysis of vacuole

D: Immunity – Cell mediated
–  Requires sensitized T-cells to activate macrophages

E: [DieterLe Silver Stain]