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Flashcards in 9 Development of the Brain - M Deck (71)
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1

What is the order of neurulation?

neural plate --> neural groove --> neural tube

2

What structure induces neurulation?

the notochord

3

The caudal 1/3 of the neural plate develops in what?

future spinal cord

4

What are the last two parts of the neural groove to close during neurulation?

Cranial & caudal neuropores

5

which neuropore, cranial or caudal, closes last?

caudal neuropore (Day 27)

6

Where does secondary neurulation occur?

the sacrum and coccyx

7

What occurs during secondary neurulation?

the caudal eminence fuses with the caudal portion of the neural tube

8

What cells are derived from neuroectoderm?

neurons of the CNS, glial cells, ependyma

9

What type of glial cell is not derived from neuroectoderm?

microglial cells (macrophages); derived from mesenchymal cells

10

NCCs give rise to which part of the nervous system?

the peripheral NS including all ganglia outside of the CNS

11

The 4th pair of somites demarks what?

Marks which part of the NT will form the brain and which will form the spinal cord

12

What are the 3 divisions of the NT that will develop into the brain?

Prosencephalon/forebrain, mesencephalon/midbrain, rhombencephalon/hindbrain

13

The prosencephalon/forebrain divides to give rise to what 2 brain regions?

Telencephalon (cerebrum) and diencephalon

14

The mesencephalon/midbrain gives rise to what brain region?

midbrain

15

The rhombencephalon/hindbrain gives rise divides into what brain structures?

metencephalon (pons) and myelencephalon (medulla)

16

When does the telencephalon begin to divide into two hemispheres?

by the 5th wk

17

What flexure is found between the midbrain & hindbrain?

cephalic flexure

18

What flexure is found between the hindbrain and the cervical region?

cervical flexure

19

During what timeframe are the basal ganglia developing?

6th-32nd wks

20

What structures are derived from the telencephalon? (6 major structures)

cerebral cortex, subcortical white matter, olfactory bulb/tract, basal ganglia, amygdala, hippocampus

21

What structures are derived from the diencephalon? (4)

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus (pineal gland), and eyes (optic nerve)

22

Which 2 cranial nerves are derived from the midbrain?

oculomotor and trochlear

23

What structures are derived from the midbrain?

cerebral peduncles, tectum, tegmentum, substania nigra, and periaquedutal gray matter

24

What are the structures found in the tectum?

superior/inferior colliculi

25

What is holoprosencephaly (HPE)?

incomplete separation of the cerebral hemispheres (errors during 5th wk)

26

What other malformations are associated with HPE?

facial malformations (cleft lip/palate), orbital hypotelorism

27

What two structures give rise to the pituitary gland?

1st PA ectoderm (Rathke's pouch) and neuroectoderm from forebrain (diencephalon)

28

the 1st PA ectoderm gives rise to which part of the pituitary gland?

anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)

29

Forebrain neuroectoderm gives rise to which part of the pituitary gland?

posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)

30

What separates the developing spinal cord into anterior and posterior plates?

the sulcus limitans