9.6 Synaptic plasticity, memory and learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.6 Synaptic plasticity, memory and learning Deck (15)

What is memory?

The encoding, storage and retrieval of learned information


What is declarative memory?

items available to consciousness and can be expressed by language


What is non declarative memory?

items not directly available to consciousness - skills, learning, cues

Difficult to express how such procedures are enacted


What are the temporal categories of memory?

Long term


How do you transfer information from working to long term memory?



What is anterogade and retrograde amnesia?

Anterograde: inability to create new memories
Retrograde: Inability to retrieve made memories


What causes anterograde amnesia?

Large correlation with hippocampal damage as this is important in formation of memory, processing for consolidation but NOT the site of storage


Where are declarative memories stored?

All over - distributed within networks which means that in general damage to one area wont lead you to losing everything


What happens in Wernickes aphasia?

inability to link sound with meaning of the word


What systems are involved in non declarative memory?

Basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, amygdala and somatosensory cortex


what type of sleep is helpful for memory consolidation?

non REM sleep in stage 2 particularly in 4th quarter (towards morning)


How is sleep thought to help consolidation?

The same activity that occurs during a task continues on during sleep at very high correlations

During sleep hippocampal information is gradually synchronised with the cortex


What is synaptic plasticity?

Changes in synaptic efficacy, including post synaptic excitability and spine/cellular growth


How does long term potentiation occur?

1. AP depolarises terminal releasing glutamate
2. Glutamate binds to AMPA
3. Depolarisation which moves Mg
4. NMDA opens
5. Calcium enters the cell
6. Activates protein kinase C and Ca calmodulin kinase II
7. Insertion of additional AMPA receptors


How does long term depression occur?

1. Calcium and Na enter the post synaptic cell
2. Small depolarisation
3. Ca activates protein phosphatase 2
4. dephosphorylation of AMPA receptors and internalisation of receptors
5. Leads to a decrease in EPSP