A&P 16 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 16 18 Deck (143):
0

The depression in which the rounded head of femur fits hip socket

Acetabulum

1

Point at which bones attach
Articulation

Joints

2

To waste away

Atrophy

3

A small fluid filled sac that prevents friction

Bursa

4

The largest tarsal bone located in the heel

Calcaneous

5

Fibrous connective tissue in joints

Cartilage

6

The collar bone

Clavicle

7

Tailbone

Coccyx

8

Ability to shorten and become thicker

Contractility

9

Shaft of long bones

Diaphysis

10

Ends of long bones

Epiphysis

11

Thigh bone

Femur

12

Bone in the leg which is not weight bearing

Fibula

13

Manner or style of walking

Gait

14

Process of manufacturing blood cells mostly occurring in red bone marrow in the epiphysis

Hematopoiesis

15

Single long bone found in upper arm connecting to shoulder

Humerous

16

fibrous band connecting bone or cartilage

Ligament

17

Protrusions where the lower ends of the tibia and fibula meet ankle bones

Mallelous

18

Sponge like material in hollow cavities in bone

Red bone marrow

19

Two bone that fuse to create the upper jaw bone

Maxilla

20

The process of bone formation

Ossification

21

A cell that is associated with bone production

Osteoblasts

22

A cell associated in breakdown of bones to assist in reabsorption

Osteoclasts

23

Hardened mature muscle cell

Osteocytes

24

Patella

Knee cap

25

The pelvic girdle

Pelvis

26

The specialized tissue outer layer that covers all bones

Periosteum

27

Opening of the pelvis

Pubic arch

28

The small bone of the forearm

Radius

29

Solid bone in the spinal column of adults that anchors the pelvis

Sacrum

30

Shoulder blade

Scapulae

31

A cavity or channel in bone

Sinus

32

Breast bone

Sternum

33

Tough cords that attach muscle to bone

Tendons

34

The chest is also known as

Thorax

35

Large bone of the forearm

Ulna

36

Large weight bearing bone of the lower leg

Tibia

37

The muscoskeletal system includes

Skeleton
Joints
Bursar
Ligaments
Muscles
Tendons

38

Name the 5 functions of the skeletal system

Support
Protection
Movement
Blood formation
Storage

39

Is the skeleton a living structure

Yes

40

Bones is filled with these deposits

Calcium deposits

41

Are the bones considered organs

Yes

42

The adult human has how many bones

206

43

What two minerals are bones made of

Calcium and phosphorous

44

Bone type
Have an extended shape and provide body with support an shape

Long bones

45

Bone type
Femur tibia radius etc

Long bones

46

Bone type
Cube shaped bones that facilitate movement transfer forces

Short bones

47

Bone type
Metatarsals
metacarpals
Phalanges
Ankle
Wrist

Short bones

48

Bone type
Provides surfaces for muscle attachment
Ex: cranial, ribs, scapulae, pelvis, ilum

Flat bones

49

Bone type
Similar to short bones but have no shape for attachments an articulations
Sesamoid bones

Irregular bones

50

An irregular bone
Small and rounded
Ex: patella

Sesamoid bone

51

Two type is bone tissue are

Compact bone
Spongy bone

52

Bone tissue type that make up the shaft of long bone and outer layer under periosteum

Compact bone

53

Cancellous bone composed of small tiny plates

Spongy bones

54

The inner layer of bone lined along endosteum composed of marrow

Medullary cavity

55

type of marrow in medullary cavity of bone consist of mostly fat

Yellow marrow

56

Marrow found in ends of long bone Vertebrae and flat bones which function is Hematopoiesis

Red bone marrow

57

Vascular network covering the outside layer of bones

Periosteum

58

Merges with ligaments and tendons and also contains blood vessels that supply O2 to osteocytes keeping them alive

Periosteum

59

The diaphysis and epiphysis do not fuse until

Adulthood

60

The space where diaphysis an epiphysis meet

Epiphyseal growth plate

61

A small plane or smooth area where vertebrae of the spinal column articulate with ribs

Facet

62

A large rounded projection usually for articulation with another bone
Ex: femur

Condyle

63

Large elevated knob like projection usually for muscle attachment

Tuberous oth

64

A small rounded knob or nodule usually for attachment for a tendon or ligament

Tubercle

65

A flat projection or area is called a

Plate

66

Any prominence or projection of bone is called

Bony process

67

The largest bony process is

The greater trochanter of the femur

68

Spongelike air space within a bone

Sinus

69

Sent trench or depression is called

Fossa

70

Name three types of joints

Synarthrosis
Diarthrosis
Amphiarthrosis

71

Fibrous fixed joints
Sutural ligaments
Moveable
found in skull as sutures

Synarthrosis

72

Cartilaginous joints
Slightly moveable
Symphysis pubis

Amphiarthrosis

73

A joint in which cartilage is converted to bone by adulthood as in the coccyx bc most children's bones are made of mostly cartilage

Synchrondosis

74

Synovial joints
Freely moveable especially at ends of long bones
Contain ligaments and cartilage

Diarthrosis

75

Diarthrosis
Finger elbow knee jaw and ankle

Hinge joints

76

Diarthrosis
Rotation consist of rounded end of one bone that moves with a cup shaped depression

Ball and socket joints

77

Diarthrosis
Turning like a door knob

Pivot joints

78

Diarthrosis
Ankle and wrist joints

Gliding joints

79

Diarthrosis
Involve the oval shaped head of one bone moving within the elliptical cavity in another permitting all movements except axial rotation

Condyloid joints

80

Allow movements that can be shifted in different directions
Opposing surfaces are concave convex

Saddle joint

81

Strong fibrous bands that holds bones together

Ligaments

82

Ligaments that do not move or stretch but strengthen or support other ligaments

Accessory ligaments

83

Soft and flexible connective tissue that helps reduce friction In joints and shock absorption

Cartilage

84

2 Divisions of the skeleton

Axial
Appendicular

85

Contains the bones in the center axis if the body such as skull vertebral column and rib cage

Axial

86

Contains the bones of the extremities appendages and pelvic girdle

Appendicular

87

The membranous area between the infants cranial bones soft spots are called

Fontanels

88

The only moveable facial bone

Mandible

89

Free Bone not attached to skull
Horseshoe shaped bone
Above the larynx
Below the mandible
Attached to tongue

Hyoid

90

The spinal cord passes through the brain through

Vertebral formina

91

The first 7 bones in the vertebrae

Cervical vertebrae

92

The second 12 bones in the vertebrae

Thoracic vertebrae

93

The last 5 bones in the vertebrae fused together in adults right before coccyx called

Lumbar vertebrae
Sacrum

94

And inverterbral disc that has shifted out of position

Slipped disk

95

Occurs when pressure forced less dense tissue sideways causing protrusion in the disk walls

Ruptured disk

96

The first 7 pairs of ribs are

True ribs

97

The next five pairs are called

False ribs

98

The last two pairs of ribs

Floating ribs

99

The top portion of the sternum

Manubrium

100

The body if the sternum is the

Middle

101

Bottom portion of sternum is called

Xyphoid process

102

Shin bone

Tibia

103

3 Type of muscle tissue

Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac

104

Striated voluntary muscle that controls movements
Multinucleated
Produces heat and promotes venous return an is stimulates by nervous system

Skeletal muscle

105

Striated involuntary muscle found in the middle layer of heart (myocardium)
Single nucleated
Branching networks pumping blood out if heart through blood vessels

Cardiac muscle

106

Non striated involuntary muscle
Peristalsis
Maintains BP
Propels urine
Dilated pupils
Blood vessel contraction

Smooth muscle

107

Muscle fibers are made up of many thin threads of

Myofilaments
Myofibrils

108

The contractile unit of the myofibril is the

Sarcomere

109

Major muscles of body that are partially under conscious control

Diaphragm
Intercostal muscles

110

When muscles have the ability to shorten and become thicker

Contractility

111

When muscles have the ability to stretch

Extensibility

112

When muscles have the ability to return to normal. After stretch

Elasticity

113

Ability to respond to a stimulus nerve impulses

Irritability

114

Alopecia

Baldness

115

Yellow or re pigment contained in many foods converted to vitamin a in the body

Carotene

116

Ear wax made in ceruminal gland

cerumen

117

Lack of O2

Clubbing

118

White fibrous structural protein found in tendons cartilage skin and other connective tissues

Collagen

119

Sudoriferous glands are the

Sweat glands

120

The shedding or scaling I the skin or cuticle

Desquamation

121

The outermost layer of the skin

Epidermis

122

Perspiration

Diaphoresis

123

Fistula

Tunneling

124

Protein that is the major protein of hair nails and the epidermis and organic matrix of tooth enamel

Keratin

125

Dark pigment that may be present in a tumor

Melanin

126

Nevus

Mole

127

Oil secreting glands located close to hair follicles

Sebaceous gland

128

Oily secretions of sebaceous glands

Sebum

129

Tissue that lies below the dermis and binds to skin to the underlying muscle tissue

Subcutaneous tissue

130

Thermoregilation

Heat control

131

Skin condition. Characterized by white patches

Vitiligo

132

The body's true protector

Keratin

133

Waterproofs the skin

Keratin

134

Cell of epidermis that produces keratin

Keranocyte

135

Cells of epidermis
Produces the pigment melanin

Melanocyte

136

Provides immune response and participates in allergy response

Langerhans

137

Promotes sensation of touch

Merkel

138

Makes up the skins thin superficial outer layer

Epidermis

139

Below epidermis thick layer which is vascular containing hair glands and nerves

Dermis

140

Subcutaneous tissue fatty layer not actually part of skin cushions supports and insulates skin single layer of fat tissue below the dermis.

Hypodermis

141

Layers within the epidermis

Strata

142

A cheesy looking covering produced by the sebaceous glands before birth

Vernix caseosa