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Flashcards in nutrition ch 30 Deck (140):
0

Result of processes whereby the body takes in and used nutrients for growth and development

Nutrition

1

Chemical substances found in good that are essential for life

Nutrients

2

Builds and repairs body tissue
Provides energy when reserves are low

Protein

3

How many calories in 1 gram of protein

4kcal

4

How many calories in 1 gram of fat

9kcal

5

How many grams in 1 gram of carbs

4 kcal

6

CHO

Carbohydrates

7

carbs are a source of

Fiber

8

carbs are stored in liver as

As glycogen

9

Name 4 simple sugars

Glucose
Dextrose
Fructose
Galactose

10

Sweet, require no digestion, absorbed directly into blood stream from small intestines

Carbs

11

Dextrose is found in

Fruits
Veggies
Corn syrup

12

Fructose is found in

Fruit

13

Galactose is found in

Milk

14

Name three double sugars
Disaccharides

Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose

15

A chemical composition where a substance is split into smaller components by adding water

Hydrolysis

16

Where is maltose found

Infant formula
Beer

17

Where is lactose found

Milk

18

Digestible polysaccharides

Starch, glycogen, dextrin a

19

Indigestible complex carbs
Polysaccharides

Cellulose
Gums
Pactins

20

Roughage or residue
Indigestible polysaccharide which provides bulk and binds with cholesterol

Dietary fiber

21

Where to find dietary fiber

Fruit skin
Vegetable stems
Whole grains

22

Absorbed directly into the bloodstream from intestines and carried to cells for energy

Glucose

23

This type of carb is broken down by hydrolysis

Disaccharide

24

What enzyme breaks down sucrose

Sucrase

25

What enzyme breaks down lactose

Lactase

26

Cellulose and starch breakdown

Cellulose
Starch
Dextrin
Maltose
Glucose

27

Digestion of carbs begins in

The mouth

28

What enzyme breaks down starch and carbs in the mouth

Amylase ptyalin

29

All carbs are broken down into simple sugars by adding O2

Oxidation

30

Excess glucose that is not stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen is stored

As fat
Adipose tissue

31

Hormone responsible for glucose metabolism produced in beta cells of the islets of langhorn in the pancreas

Insulin

32

Too much glucose in the blood
Diabetes

Hyperglycemia

33

Not enough glucose in the blood to be used for energy

Hypoglycemia

34

What is the result of oxidation of glucose

Energy

35

What are two waste products of carbs

CO2 and H2O

36

Too little carbs leads to

Fatigue
headache
dehydration
ketosis

37

Too much carbs leads to

Obesity
Decreased appetite
Tooth decay
Flatulance

38

Oily substances not soluble in water but soluble in alcohol and ether

Fats / lipids

39

Makes up adipose tissue which protects organs, bones and main source of insulation

Fats and lipids

40

This is stored in adipose tissue to provide energy when one cannot eat

Fats and lipids

41

Component of cells membranes

Fats lipids

42

Visible fat

Butter
Cooking oil
Lard

43

Invisible fat

Milk
Nuts
Pastries
Eggs

44

Gives flavor or texture to foods

Lipids

45

Most fat in food is stored as

Triglycerides

46

Triglycerides are compose of

Three fatty vids and one glycerol

47

Major function of fat is to

Provide energy

48

Takes long to digest

Fats

49

fats are broken down in the small intestine by

Lipase in pancreatic juice

50

How to fats enter the lymph system back to liver

Through lacteals

51

Chemical digestion of fats begin where using what enzyme

Stomach
Gastric lipase

52

Fat with one double bond
Liquid at room temperature

Mono unsaturated fats
MUFAS

53

Fats
Two or more double bonds
Not synthesized or found in humans
Linoleic acid

Poly unsaturated fats
PUFAS

54

Fats no bonds at all
Come from animal products
Solid at room temperature

Saturated fatty acid

55

When a polyunsaturated fatty acid like vegetable oil is hydrogenated to make it solid at room temperature

Trans fat

56

Unsaturated fats tend to be hard or soft at room temp

Soft liquid

57

Carriers of fat in the blood to body cells

Lipoproteins

58

Sterols found in animal tissues that the body needs to produces hormones, vitamin D and bile acids

Cholesterol

59

Foods high in cholesterol

Organ meats
Egg yolk

60

Cholesterol is transported by

Lipoprotein molecules

61

Lipoprotein molecules are found in

Blood

62

Lipoprotein that functions to transport cholesterol from tissues back to the liver

High density lipoproteins

63

Lipoprotein which lowers serum cholesterol levels and lowers risk of heart disease " good cholesterol"

High density cholesterol

64

Transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissues "bad cholesterol"

Low density lipoprotein

65

Aids in development of artherosclerosis and coronary artery disease

Low density lipoprotein

66

What organ controls fat metabolism

Liver

67

Fatty acids final breakdown into

CO2 and H2O

68

Fatty substance found in plant and animal food
Natural emulsifier that helps transport fats in blood
Used commercially to make foods smooth

Lecithin

69

Fatty acids found in fish oil and helps decrease coronary artery disease

Omega 3 fatty acids

70

Too little fat causes

Eczema
Growth retardation
Weight loss

71

Too much fat causes

Heart disease
Obesity
Certain cancers

72

Only nutrient that repairs tissue

Protein

73

Protein in made up of amino acids that consists what atoms

C
H
O
N

74

Needed for formation of muscles tissues glands organs skin blood clotting factors and helps maintain body's acid base balance

Protein

75

Thyroid hormones
Insulin
Antibodies
All enzymes are

Proteins

76

Chemical digestion of protein starts in

The stomach

77

What enzyme in the stomach breaks down protein into polypeptides

Pepsin

78

Protease and trypsin found in the pancreas can split protein down to

Amino acids

79

The dipeptide and tripeptide proteins are broken down in

Small intestine

80

Function of blood proteins

Albumins and globulins help keep ICF and ECF in normal fluid compartments

81

If not enough CHO an fats this provides for energy

Proteins

82

Proteins are made of

Amino acids

83

Essential amino acids are found

In diet

84

Non essential amino acids are found

In your body

85

Fat soluble vitamins

A D E K and D

86

Vitamin D is sometimes considered

Hormone

87

Fat soluble vitamins are stored in

Liver and adipose tissue

88

Name three electrolytes

Sodium
Potassium
Chloride

89

Deficiency in sodium can lead to

Diarrhea
Vomiting
Renal disorders
Nausea
Cramps
Apathy

90

Too much sodium leads to

Hypertension
Edema

91

Deficiency in potassium can lead to

Weakness
Paralysis
anorexia
Confusion

92

Too much potassium can lead to

Weakness and vomiting and heart failure

93

Deficiency in chloride leads to

Anorexia
Apathy
Renal disorders
Vomiting

94

Too much chloride can lead to

Normally harmless but can cause vomiting

95

Mineral found in milk that aids in
Bone an teeth formation
Blood clotting
Muscle contraction

Calcium

96

mineral found in meat bread and cereal which aids along with calcium

Phosphorous

97

Defiance in calcium can lead to

Osteoporosis

98

Too much mineral phosphorous can lead too

Low blood calcium

99

Mineral found in veggies nuts chocolate and whole grain that aids in protein synthesis , enzyme activity and carb metabolism

Mg magnesium

100

Mineral found in red meats, fish , poultry that aids in oxygen transport

Iron

101

Iron deficiency leads to

Impaired immunity
Fatigue
Dry itchy skin
Pale nail beds and eyes

102

Too much iron in children causes

Death

103

Too much iron in adults causes

Hair loss
Enlarged liver
Organ damage
Joint diseases

104

Mineral found in salt and seafood bread and dairy products that are components of thyroid hormones that regulate growth development an metabolism regulation

Iodine

105

Deficiency in iodine leads to

Goiter
Weight gain

106

Too much iodine can lead to

Enlarged thyroid glands
Decreased thyroid activity

107

Name four major minerals

Calcium
Phosphorous
Magnesium
Sulfur

108

Name two important trace elements

Iron
Iodine

109

Hypervitaminosis

Excess vitamin intake

110

Vitamin antioxidant found in corn oil safflower oil, wheat germ, nuts and green leafy veggies, avocados sweet potatoes and beans

Vitamin E

111

Protects cell walls from oxidation
Prevents hemolysis of RBCs
Good for burns
Protects vitamins A & C

Vitamin E

112

This vitamin deficiency is sought to be very rare in humans

Vitamin E

113

Lack of vitamin E leads to

Edema
Suppresses immunity
Neuro defects in kids
Absorption problems in low birth weight newborns

114

Too much vitamin E leads too

Excessive bleeding
Impaired wound healing
Narcolepsy
Depression

115

Vitamin k can also be called

Menadine

116

This vitamin is essential for blood clotting. 50% of this vitamin is produced in lg intestine as menaquinone

Vitamin k

117

Babies unable to produce vitamin k in large intestines must

Be given an injection the first 24 hours

118

Pharmaceutical form of vitamin k

Menadine

119

Too much vitamin k can lead to

Jaundice
Increased bleeding
Hemolysis
Liver damage

120

Vitamin B1 aka

Thiamin

121

B complex vitamin that helps convert food to energy and participates in RNA and DNA formation

Thiamin vitamin B1

122

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin

123

Vitamin that participates in enzymatic energy release of carbs
Fat and protein. Promotes vision and skin health

Vitamin B2 riboflavin

124

Deficiencies in vitamin B2 riboflavin

Eye problems
Skin disorders
Chelonia
Gloss iris
Stomatitis

125

Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine

126

Vitamin involved in converting tryptophan to niacin
RBC formation

Vitamin B6 pyridoxine

127

Deficiencies Vitamin b6 pyridoxine

Central nervousness system disorders
Seizures kidney stones

128

Vitamin B9

Folate or folic acid

129

Vitamin that aid in new cell division. Prevents anemia. RBC formation and DNA synthesis

Vitamin B9 folic acid

130

Deficiency in folic acid vitamin b9

Anemia
Smooth tongue
Neural and birth defects

131

Atrophic glossitis

Smooth tongue

132

Vitamin b12

Cobalamin

133

Deficiency in vitamin b12 leases to

Pernicious anemia

134

Vitamin c

Absorbing acid

135

Used to help iron absorption

Vitamin C

136

Deficiency in vitamin c

Capillary hemorrhage
Bleeding gums
Scurvy
Anemia

137

Lack of vitamin c leads to

Nosebleeds
Abdominal cramps
RBC damage

138

Minerals are

Atoms

139

50-60 percent of body weight is

Water