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Flashcards in Fund 48, 49, 50 Deck (115):
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Three principles of body mechanics

Center of gravity
Line of gravity
Base of support

1

Applying the mechanical principles of movement to the human body to promote the safest method of moving and lifting

Body mechanics

2

Center of gravity is located

Pelvic area

3

When half of body weight is distributed below the pelvic area and the other above

Center of gravity

4

The wider the base the more

Stable the support

5

Where is the base of support located

In your feet
Feet apart

6

Imaginary vertical line through the top of the head down to the feet, this is the direction of gravitational pull from head to feet

Line of gravity

7

Instead of lifting heavy objects

Push pull or roll

8

Avoid reaching or over extending

.

9

Blood clots , pressure ulcers, constipation , muscle breaking and atrophy , pneumonia, joint deformities, mental disorders , anxiety, confusion, isolation, depression can all happen if a person has no

Mobility

10

Back lying legs extended or slightly bent. Arms up or down. Maybe uncomfortable for client with back problem

Supine

11

Laying on abdomen straight
Examination of spine back
Not good for pregnant women
Abnormal Breathing clients
Or obese client

Prone position

12

Side lying
Client positioned for extended lying periods
More comfortable than prone

Lateral position

13

Side/stomach lying, upper knee flexed ,
Difficulty for clients with arthritis or leg injuries

Sims position

14

Supine with head raised
Promotes drainage, assists with breathing, prep for dangling or walking. Watch for dizziness or fainting

Fowlers

15

Sitting at a 30-45 degree angle

Semi Fowlers

16

Sitting at a 90 degree angle

High Fowlers

17

High Fowlers but leaning on overbed table ,facilitates breathing with patients with severe cardiac or respiratory disorders

Orthopneic

18

Client on knees with chest raised and butt raised. Client may become dizzy do not leave them alone. For rectal or vaginal examinations

Knee chest
Genupectoral

19

Supine with legs separated and feet on stirrups

Dorsal lithotomy

20

Permanently shortened muscles due to lack of use , tissues becomes tight and lose elasticity making deformities

Contractures

21

A type of contracture where perioneal nerve is damaged resulting in paralysis and permanent planter flex ion of the foot, cannot put heel on floor to walk

Foot drop

22

Name three preventative measure for Contractures

Hand tools for hands
Slanted foot board
Trochanter rolls placed on. Each side of legs and hips

23

Standing with chest head and arms on table usually during prostate examination

Modified standing

24

Lying on right side with knees up and back exposed. Spinal fluid exam. Spinal anesthesia . Drug administration

Lumbar puncture

25

Head lower than feet
Promotes venous return
Treatment of shock

Trendelenbergs

26

Head higher than feet
Facilitates tube feeding
Treatment in severe bleeding or head injury

Reverse trendelenberg

27

positioning a client you will need first a

Doctors order

28

These rolls are placed on each side of client to keep legs and feet from rolling out words causing deformities

Trochanter rolls

29

Dorsal recumbent

Supine

30

A person wearin heels all the time can develop

Foot drop

31

ROM

Range of motion

32

When nurse assists in ROM

Passive ROM

33

When client performs ROM

Active ROM

34

When ROM is done mechanically

Continuos passive motion

35

Decreasing angles between two bones

Flexion

36

Position that allows digestive and respiratory organs to function

Supine

37

A method of turning a client that keeps body straight in alignment
Ex: pt with spinal cord injuries and back surgery

Log roll turn

38

ROM

Prevents immobility
Prevents Contractures
Prevents bed sores
Joint deformities

39

Bending the leg at the hip

Flex ion

40

Flex and release of arm

Flexion
Hyper extension

41

Bending head back to look at ceiling or bending all the way up

Hyper extension

42

Bending hands down

Flexion

43

bending a body towards the dorsum (backwards) as in feet

Dorsiflexion

44

Pointing the toes outward or down

Planter flexion

45

Moving leg away from midline of body

Abduction

46

Moving leg towards mid line of body

Adduction

47

Moving extremeties in circular motion

Circumduction

48

Moving head side to side

Rotation

49

Turning the palm facing upward

Supination

50

Turning the palms face downward

Pronation

51

Turning the foot inward than outward

Inversion
Eversion

52

Moving jaw forward

Protraction

53

Moving jaw backwards

Retraction

54

Gets large muscles ready for walking
Clients tightens and release muscles

Isometrics

55

Can isometrics prevent Contractures

No

56

Isometrics routine

5 sets
5 secs
2 min rests

57

Continuous passive motion exercises are usually at the

Knee it hip

58

ROM usually after joint replacement or arthroscopic repair of a joint

Continuous Passive motion
CPM

59

PRN

Pain medication

60

Often 15 minutes before use of CPM machine give client

PRN

61

If client complains if pain

Stop and ask supervisor

62

Yellow ID band means

Fall risk

63

Fall risk assents are done by

RN

64

Why would a pt dangling feel light headed or dizzy

Orthostatic or postural hypotension

65

Orthodontic or postural hypotension

Temporary fall in blood pressure

66

Inability to move a part of the body

Paralysis

67

When do you encourage waking after surgery

Immediately to avoid immobility compications

68

If a client is in a chair an get lightheaded

Have them bend over at waist and lower their head

69

If a client becomes light heading during ambulation

help lean them into wall or ease them down to ground

70

Conditioning and strengthen exercise before walking to help client regain feeling in foot

Press feet down on foot stool

71

Came is held on clients

Strong side

72

Three types of canes

Straight leg
Tripod
Quad

73

Walkers with wheels are harder to use than ones with rubber feet
Why?

Doesn't stay in place harder to support client

74

Traditional crutch

Axillary

75

People with multiple sclerosis or polio use what type of crutches

Loftstrand

76

Most supportive crutch

Rocker crutch

77

Crutches should be how many inches away from feet?

6 inches

78

How far from axillae should crutches be

Two to three finger widths

79

Manner or style of walking that an md will determine for client

Gait

80

Client is partially weight bearing on both legs

Two point gait

81

Each crutch an only one leg support weight

Three point gait

82

Each crutch and each leg move separately

4 point gait

83

Clients stands on strong leg moves both crutches forward the same distance and swings himself forward

Swing through tripod gait

84

Paralyzed from the waist down

Paraplegia

85

Paralyzed on one side of the body

Hemiplegia

86

You can move an immobile client two ways

Transfer board
Lifting sheet

87

A frame used to prevent bedclothes from touching all or part of a persons body

Bed cradle

88

Unoccupied bed

Closed bed

89

A foam pad shaped like an egg carton provides comfort, Contractures , immobility or skin wounds

Egg crate mattress

90

Mattress or pad filled with a gel type material which supports the body in a way to provide comfort and avoid creating pressure points

Flotation mattresses

91

Vertical support at foot of bed

Footboard

92

Contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting heel on floor abnormal planter flexion of foot

Foot board

93

Bed that allows linens to be turned down

Open bed

94

Bed prepared for a client who is returning from surgery. Requires transfer from wheelchair or stretcher

Postoperative beds

95

Exertion of pulling force: an apparatus attached to the client to maintain stability of a joint or aligned fracture or to exert a pulling force elsewhere, as in lower back to receive pressure

Traction

96

Bar suspended over bed for client to lift themselves with

Trapeze

97

Food lodged in mouth can cause

Decay
Halitosis
Pyorrhea peridontitis

98

Pyorrhea
Peridontitis

Inflammation of tooth sockets

99

Dry mouth can cause

Sordes

100

Brownish deposits on tongue and mucous membrane

Sordes

101

If clients teeth are too sense rice use

Toothettes
Tongue depressor
Applicators

102

Do not hold dentures over hard surface

True

103

Where to place denture

Opaque container
Labeled with clients name and rm #

104

Who can remove contact lenses

Client or family member

105

Remove client dentures before

Surgery

106

Cerumen

Earwax

107

Can a LPN use q tip in client

No

108

Dried secretions may be removed with

Gauze or cotton ball

109

Never cut nails or toe nails for clients with

Diabetes or hemophilia

110

To cut toe nails you need

Md order

111

Thickened and raise bed nails can be a sign of

Infection

112

Foot soaks are good for which types of clients

Edema
Foot infections

113

hair shampoo requires

Md order

114

Pediculosis

Lice