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Flashcards in A01 biological explanations of schizophrenia Deck (23)
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1
Q

Which explanation for schizophrenia recieved most support

A

Biological

2
Q

What are the 2 main sections

A

Genetic factors

The dopamine hypothesis

3
Q

What are the 3 sections in genetic factors

A

Family studies
Twin studies
Adoption studies

4
Q

Who tested family studies

A

Gottesman

5
Q

What did gottesman find

A

Children with 2 schizo parents have a concordance rate of 46%
Children with one schizo parent 13%
Sibling 9%

6
Q

Conclusion of family studies

A

Schizo is more common among biological relatives of a person with schizo and the closer the rel the greater the risk
Therefore biological relations could be an explanation

7
Q

Who tested twin studies

A

Joseph

8
Q

What did joseph do and find

A

Concordance rate of mono zygotic (fraternal) twins at 40%

7% for dizygotic (similar) twins

9
Q

What is the theory for the twin studies

A

If monozygotic twins are more concordant than dizygotic twins in terms of schizo then this suggests greater similarity is due to genetic factors

10
Q

Conclusion for twin studies

A

Findings support view that genetic factors could be used to explain cz of the higher concordance rate of schizo in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins

11
Q

What is concordance rate

A

Similar to similarity rate

12
Q

What is monozygotic twins

And dizygotic twins

A

Identical twins who share 100% of their genes

Fraternal twins who share 50% of their genes

13
Q

Who tested adoption studies

A

Tienari et al

14
Q

What did tienari et al do and find

A

Tested genetic and environmental influences for schizo using genetically related indvs
6.7% of the adoptees with a schizo biological mum also recieved a diagnosis of schizo
3-2% of adoptees to a non schizo mum recieved a diagnosis of schizo

15
Q

Conclusion of adoption studies

A

Genetic liability to schizo confirmed despite genetically related indvs being reared apart (different environments)

16
Q

What are the 3 section of evidence for of the dopamine hypothesis

A

Amphetamines
Anti psychotic drugs
Parkinsons disease

17
Q

What is the dopamine hypothesis

4 points

A

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter
Messages from neurones that transmit dopamine fire too easily or too often leading to characteristics of schizo
Schizo have abnormally high numbers of D2 receptors on receiving neurones resulting in more dopamine building and therefore more neurones firing
Dopamine neurones play a role in guiding attention, so disturbances lead to problems with attention, perceptipn& thought

18
Q

Role of amphetamines

A

A dopamine agonist
Stimulates nerve cells containing dopamine
Causes the synapse to be flooded with the neurotransmitter

19
Q

What are amphetamines

A

A drug

20
Q

How do we know amphetamines support hypothesis

A

Large doses of the drug can cause the characteristic hallucinations and delusions of a schizo episode

21
Q

Role of Anti psychotic drugs

A

Dopamine antagonists
Block the activity of dopamine in the brain
Reduce stimulation of the dopamine system

22
Q

How do we know anti psychotics support hypothesis

A

They eliminate and alleviate symptoms of schizo eg hallucinations and delusions
Supported view that dopamine is a contributory factor in Dev of schizo

23
Q

How does Parkinsons disease support hypothesis

A

Low levels of dopamine are found I people with park is ons disease and when people took 5 he drug L-dopa to raise their dopamine levels they Dev symptoms of schizo