abdomen 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in abdomen 1 Deck (22):
1

where does the diaphragm end?

- intercostal space of T4

2

where is the umbilicus located?

- T10

3

what is the relationship between the serratus anterior and external oblique?

- muscular fibers interdigitate

4

do the abdominal muscles cross each other?

- no they always end up in a tendous sheath (rectus sheath)

5

what happens to the rectus sheath above the umbilicus?

- anterior layer (aponeuroses of external and internal oblique)
- posterior layer (aponeuroses of internal oblique and transverse)

6

what happens to the rectus sheath below the umbilicus?

- anterior layer (aponeuroses of external, internal oblique and transverse)
- posterior layer (rectus abdominis is in contact with transversalis fascia)

7

what structures does the rectus sheath enclose?

- rectus abdominis muscles
- superior and inferior epigastric vessels
- ventral primary rami of T7-12 nerves

8

what is the linea semicircularis (arcuate line)?

- crescent shaped line marking the inferior limt of the posterior layer of the rectus sheath just below the level of the iliac crest

9

median umbilical ligament and fold

- remnant of obliterated urachus --> median umbilical fold
- lies between transversalis fascia and peritoneum and extends from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus

10

medial umbilical ligament or fold

- remnant of obliterated umbilical artery --> medial umbilical fold and extends from the side of the bladder to the umbilicus

11

lateral umbilical fold

- fold of peritoneum that covers inferior epigastric vessels and extends from medial side of deep inguinal ring to the arcuate line

12

transversalis fascia

- lining of fascia of entire abdominopelvic cavity between parietal peritoneum and inner surface of abdominal muscles
- forms deep inguinal ring --> gives rise to femoral sheath and internal spermatic fascia
- directly in contact with rectus abdominis below arcuate line

13

What is the order of layers above the arcuate line from anterior to posterior? What are the structures found within the most posterior layer?

Anterior rectus sheath (1.5 tendon)
- aponeurosis external oblique
- aponeurosis internal oblique
Rectus abdominis muscle
Posterior rectus sheath (1.5 tendon)
- aponeurosis internal oblique
- aponeurosis transverse abdominal
- transversalis fascia
- *falciform ligament

14

What is the order of layers below the arcuate line from the anterior to posterior? What are the structures found within the most posterior layer?

Anterior rectus sheath
- aponeurosis external oblique
- aponeurosis internal oblique
- aponeurosis transverse abdomina
Rectus abdominis muscle
-- transversalis fascia
*Urachus (median umbilical fold) - midline, * Medial umbilical ligament and fold

15

what artery does the superficial epigastric artery arise from?

- femoral artery and runs laterally upward, parallel to inguinal ligament

16

what artery forms the ascending branch that anastomoses with the musclophrenic artery?

-deep circumflex iliac artery

17

What are the two branches of the internal thoracic arteries?

1. musclophrenic artery
2. superior epigastric artery

18

what ligament runs to the falciform ligament?

ligamentem teres

19

Inguinal (Hesselbach's) Triangle

- bounded medially by linea semilunaris (lateral edge of rectus abdominis)
- laterally by inferior epigastric vessel
- inferiorly by inguinal ligament
- site of direct inguinal hernia (more common females)

20

indirect inguinal hernia

- passes through deep inguinal ring, inguinal canal, and superficial inguinal ring and descends into scrotum
- exits at external opening of inguinal canal
- more common in males

21

What distinct gender structures pass through inguinal canal?

- spermatic cord
- round ligament

22

Medial inguinal fossa

- depression on anterior abdominal wall between medial and lateral umbilical folds of peritoneum
- fossa where most direct inguinal hernias occur