Flashcards in pelvis 1 Deck (27):
What are the bones of the pelvis?
- pelvic bones
What are the major muscles of the pelvis?
- obturator internus
- levator ani
- perineal muscles
What are the major vessels of the pelvis?
- common iliacs (external, internal)
- internal pudendal
What are the major nerves of the pelvis?
- lumbar plexus
- sacral plexus
How is the male and female pelvis different?
- subpubic angle/pubic arch is larger and greater sciatic notch is wider in female
- the cavity is wider and shallower in female
- inlet oval in female, heart shaped in male
Where do the ovaries and testes develop?
- within abdominal cavity, but later descends into pelvis/scrotum
What happens to the gubernaculum in ovary/testes descent?
- forms ovarian ligament and round ligament of uterus in females and tests in males
What is the equivalent to the scrotal sac?
- labium majorum
Where do the gonads develop?
- carry their own peritoneum
What is the path of the sperm?
- from testes --> collecting ductules --> epididymis --> vas deferens --> through inguinal canal --> back into pelvis --> seminal vesicles --> form an ejaculate
What is a continuation of the ovarian ligament?
- round ligament of uterus (which attaches to uterus in front and below attachment of uterine tube --> remains lower part of gubernaculum)
What passes through the inguinal canal in females?
- round ligament and the canal is narrow
Blood supply of the ovaries
arteries --> ovarian arteries (come from aorta) contained in suspensory ligament and anastomose with branches of uterine artery
veins --> right ovarian vein joins IVC, left ovarian vein joins left renal vein
What is special about the suspensory ligament?
- brings ovarian artery, vein, lymphatics
- band of peritoneum
What covers the ovary?
- the ovum/oocyte is expelled into peritoneal cavity and then into uterine tube
- not covered by peritoneum
What innervates the ductus deferens/vas deferens?
- SNS nerves of hypogastric plexus
- PNS nerves of pelvic plexus
Where does the vas deferens enter?
- enters the pelvis at deep inguinal ring at lateral side of inferior epigastric artery
What is the retroperitoneal relationship with the testes?
- testes developed retroperitoneally and descended into scrotum retroperitoneally
What is the vascular supply of testes?
Arterial --> testicular artery from abdominal aorta
Veins --> drained by pampiniform plexus
Where does a direct inguinal hernia occur?
- within Hasselbach triangle
Broad ligament of the uterus
- 2 layers of peritoneum
- contains uterine tube, uterine vessels, round ligament, ovarian ligament, ureter, uterovaginal nerve plexus, lymphatic vessels
- not contain ovaries
What is the composition of the seminal fluid?
- produced by seminial vesicles
- alkaline constituent contains fructose and choline
What is the tenuous arc?
- two fascia sheath connect to one another
- levator ani attaches to obturator internus (tendenous part)
What is the ischioanal fossa?
- potential space on either side anorectum and separated from pelvis by levator ani and its fasciae
- contains ischioanal fat which allows distention of anal canal during defecation
- inferior rectal nerves and vessels
What does the levator ani do?
- supports and raises the pelvic floor
What are the functions of the prostate gland?
- secrete fluid which contributes to the seminal fluid
- secretes PSA, prostaglandis, citric acid, proteolytic enzymes