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Flashcards in pelvis 1 Deck (27):

What are the bones of the pelvis?

- pelvic bones
- sacrum
- coccyx


What are the major muscles of the pelvis?

- psoas
- iliacus
- obturator internus
- levator ani
- perineal muscles


What are the major vessels of the pelvis?

- common iliacs (external, internal)
- internal pudendal


What are the major nerves of the pelvis?

- lumbar plexus
- sacral plexus
- autonomics


How is the male and female pelvis different?

- subpubic angle/pubic arch is larger and greater sciatic notch is wider in female
- the cavity is wider and shallower in female
- inlet oval in female, heart shaped in male


Where do the ovaries and testes develop?

- within abdominal cavity, but later descends into pelvis/scrotum


What happens to the gubernaculum in ovary/testes descent?

- forms ovarian ligament and round ligament of uterus in females and tests in males


What is the equivalent to the scrotal sac?

- labium majorum


Where do the gonads develop?

- retroperiotenum
- carry their own peritoneum


What is the path of the sperm?

- from testes --> collecting ductules --> epididymis --> vas deferens --> through inguinal canal --> back into pelvis --> seminal vesicles --> form an ejaculate


What is a continuation of the ovarian ligament?

- round ligament of uterus (which attaches to uterus in front and below attachment of uterine tube --> remains lower part of gubernaculum)


What passes through the inguinal canal in females?

- round ligament and the canal is narrow


Blood supply of the ovaries

arteries --> ovarian arteries (come from aorta) contained in suspensory ligament and anastomose with branches of uterine artery
veins --> right ovarian vein joins IVC, left ovarian vein joins left renal vein


What is special about the suspensory ligament?

- brings ovarian artery, vein, lymphatics
- band of peritoneum


What covers the ovary?

- the ovum/oocyte is expelled into peritoneal cavity and then into uterine tube
- not covered by peritoneum


What innervates the ductus deferens/vas deferens?

- SNS nerves of hypogastric plexus
- PNS nerves of pelvic plexus


Where does the vas deferens enter?

- enters the pelvis at deep inguinal ring at lateral side of inferior epigastric artery


What is the retroperitoneal relationship with the testes?

- testes developed retroperitoneally and descended into scrotum retroperitoneally


What is the vascular supply of testes?

Arterial --> testicular artery from abdominal aorta
Veins --> drained by pampiniform plexus


Where does a direct inguinal hernia occur?

- within Hasselbach triangle


Broad ligament of the uterus

- 2 layers of peritoneum
- contains uterine tube, uterine vessels, round ligament, ovarian ligament, ureter, uterovaginal nerve plexus, lymphatic vessels
- not contain ovaries


What is the composition of the seminal fluid?

- produced by seminial vesicles
- alkaline constituent contains fructose and choline


What is the tenuous arc?

- two fascia sheath connect to one another
- levator ani attaches to obturator internus (tendenous part)


What is the ischioanal fossa?

- potential space on either side anorectum and separated from pelvis by levator ani and its fasciae
- contains ischioanal fat which allows distention of anal canal during defecation
- inferior rectal nerves and vessels


What does the levator ani do?

- supports and raises the pelvic floor


What are the functions of the prostate gland?

- secrete fluid which contributes to the seminal fluid
- secretes PSA, prostaglandis, citric acid, proteolytic enzymes


What are the functions of the bulbourethral glands?

- pass through inferior fascia of urogenital diaphragm to open into bulbous portion of spongy (penile) urethra
- neutralizes acidity of urethra