Abdomen Flashcards Preview

Anatomy BLOCK 2 > Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (104):
1

what is the abdomen a part of

the trunk

2

the abdomen is between what two things

thorax and pelvis

3

what is superior to the abdomen

the inferior thoracic aperature

4

what is inferior to the abdomen

the pelvic gridle

5

what part of the vertebral column is associated with the abdomen

the lumbar column

6

what is the abdomen able to do while the flexibility of the thorax and pelvis continue?

it is able to enclose itself and protect itself

7

how many regions are there in the abdomen?

9

8

the nine regions are used to describe what

the location of
-organs
-pains
-pathologies

9

what are the four planes that line the nine regions of the abdomen

2 sagittal(vertical)
2transverse

10

the two sagital planes are also known as...

midclavicular planes

11

where do the two sagital planes pass from?

midpoint of the clavicle and the midinguinal parts

12

what are also known as the subcostal plane and the transtubercular plane

the transverse planes

13

where do the subcostal plane pass through

inferior border of the 10th costal cartilage on each side

14

where does the transtubercular plane pass

the illiac tubercles on the body of L5

15

the transpyloric plane is the midway between what?

the superior border of the manubrium and the pubic symph
(L1 level)

16

what structures is the transpyloric plane a landmark for?

- fundus of gallbladder
- neck of the pancreas
- hilia of kidney
- superior mesenteric artery and vein
-duodenum
- transverse mesocolon

17

the interspinous plane passes through what

easily palpated anterior spine of the illiac

18

the abdominal wall is musculoaponeurotic except for..

the posterior wall (includes lumbar vertebrae)

19

why is the term anterolateral wall used

because the boundaries between anterior and lateral are indefinite

20

what structures are in both the anterior and lateral walls of abd

muscles and cutaneous nerves

21

all skeletal origin for the anterolateral wall of abdomen is from..

the ribs and xiphoid process (cartilages 7-10)

22

walls of the abdomen mainly consist of

-skin
-subcutanous tissue(superficial fascia)
- muscles
- aponerosis of musckes
-deep fascia
- parietal peritoneum

23

the skin is loosely attached the subcutaneous tissue except where?

except at the umbilicus

24

skin is tightly adheres to the..

umbilicus

25

what kind of pressure zone is the abdomen

it is a positive pressure zone so everything is always trying to escape

26

where is the most common site for herniation

inguinal wall

27

where is the major site for fat storage

the subcutaneous tissue

28

some areas in the stomach have fat even durring..

starvation

29

what is known as the sagging folds found in morbid obese people

panniculi

(single form- panniculus or apron)

30

the subcutaneous tissue inferior to the umbilicus has two layers what are they called?

superficial fatty layer
(Camper's fascia)

deep membranous layer Scarpa Fascia

31

membranous layer ( scarpa fascia) is continous with what

colles fascia ( superifical perinal fascia)

32

where does the Scarpa Fascia ends where

2.5cm of innguinal lig

33

the scarpa fascia is not continuos with what

lata fascia

34

what fascia is tightly structured?

lata fascia

35

the investing fascia covers what

external aspects of the three muscle layers of the anterolateral abdominal wall

36

what is the internal aspect of the abdominal wall lined with

endoabdominal fascia ( has varying thickness)

37

investment means?

surrounding a structure like you are giving it a hug

38

different parts of fascia are named based on what

the apenorosis or muscle it is lining

39

what is the lining of the abdominal cavity called

the parietal peritoneum

40

why is extraperitoneal fat annoying for a surgeon

becuase it makes surgery difficult because you have to cut through it and the arteries can slip around overall making it a difficult procedure

41

where can potential fluid gather?

between the membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue and the deep fascia

42

why can fluids not spread inferiorly into the thigh

because of the membranous layer fuses with the deep layer of the thigh (fascia lata)

43

what is an
important part for surgery

fat filled space between the endoabdominal fascia

44

the kidney's and the lumbar vertebrae can be reached by

cutting through the endoabdominal fascia and accessing the extraperitonel fat

45

by entering the fat in the abdominal wall during surgery you avoid what

contamination, because you do not enter the membranous peritoneal sac that contains the abdominal viscera

46

the space between the transversalis fascia and the parietal peritoneum

the space of Bogros

47

what is the space of Bogros used for

placing a prostheses for example when repairing inguinal hernias

48

what are the three flat muscles in the abdomen

-external oblique
-internal oblique
- transverse abdominal

49

which muscles run from the side and are the deepest ones

the transverse abdominal muscles

50

the three flat muscles are so strong why

because they fuse together

51

the three flat muscles make a sheet like aponeruoses in the anterior portion, why is this important

because it is very strong as well as LIGHT!!

52

what encloses the rectus abdominis muscle

the rectus sheath ( aponerous of three muscles)

53

where is the linea alba?

in the middle of the abdomen, extending from the midclavicular line to the pubic symphysis

54

the two vertical muscles un the abdomen wall that are under the rectus sheath are called?

rectus abdominis and pyramidalis

55

where does the spinoumbilical line run

from umbilicus to the anterior superior illiac crest

56

the inguinal ligament is continuos with what

the deep fascia of the thigh

57

the inguinal ligament serves as what

a retaining band for the structures underneath of the thigh
(fixes structures where they should be)

58

the internal oblique muscles has thoracolumbar fascia but what doesn't

the external oblique muscles

59

what are the long, broad, strap-like muscles

rectus abdominis

60

what is the principle vertical muscle

rectus abdominis

61

rectus abdominis are seperated by what

linea alba

62

what is broad and thin superiorly and thick inferiorly

rectus abdominis

63

what kind of hernia can happen in the rectus abdominis muscle that are closer to the top

epigastric hernia

64

rectus abdomins are separated by

3 or more tendinous sheaths

65

when tensed in muscular people the stretches of rectus abdominis muscle between the tendons do what

bulge out

66

the pyramidalis is absent in how many people

20%

67

what is the strong compartment of the abdomen that is made up of incomplete fibers that covers the rectus abdominis

rectus sheath

68

external oblique contributes to what portion of the rectus sheath

the anterior wall

69

what splits into two laminae that go anteriorly and posteriorly to the rectus abdominis

the internal oblique

70

below umbilicus the rectus sheath stops making the wall what

deficient

71

warm hands are important when palpating the abdominal wall why

because cold hands will make the muscles tense, causing spasm to occur

72

intense guarding across things like the appendix when what is happening

when there is inflammation ( the aim is to isolate that portion)

73

involuntary muscular spasms attempt to do what

protect the viscera from pressure

74

what is the good postion for abdomen palpation

supine with knees and thighs semiflexed (enables relaxation)

75

what two things that can make palpation of the abdomen difficult ( done by patient)

placing hands behind head and lying your thighs straight, this tightens the muscle

76

what is the only protection that most of abdomen wall have

abdominal wall

77

superficial ABDOMINAL reflex is elliceted how

by horizontally stroking the abdomen wall

78

in what people will you might not feel contractions

obese people

79

you cannot dissect things in what area

umbilical area (ring) all muscles are fused here so we avoid it

80

why are prominent abdomen common in infants and children

because they have more air in there GI tract

81

liver and spleen are big in who

infants and kids, causing prominent belly

82

eversion of the umbilicus can be a sign of what

an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity ( pressure, can be tumor or the liver)

83

organomegaly

organ enlargement
ex: like splenomegaly)

- if you can palpate enlargement then it is pathological

84

three places hernias are likley to happen

-inguilanl (MAX) 90%
-umbilical
-epigastric

85

what hernias are common in kids

umbilical (umbilical ring)

due to pressure, especially in low birth babies

86

acquired umbilical hernias occur most in?

women and obese people

87

usually what do you see in umbilical hernia

extra peritoneal fat

88

line along which the fibers of abdomen aponeruoses is a good spot for

herniation

89

gaps in aponeruouis can be ...

congenital
or due to the stress of obese and aging people

ALSO SURGERY

90

epigasttric hernia occurs where

between xiphoid and umbilicus

91

spigelian hernias?

this happens where the muscles become aponeurotic

92

spigelian hernia occur in who

people over 40 and obese people

93

if the hernia is small then what? if big?

small- fat
big- might have intestine

94

all nerves for the abdomen run how

anteriorinferiorly

95

injury of abdomen nerve during surgery can cause

herniation and weakness of muscles

96

planned incisions for abdomen should not be

vertical

97

it is ideal to follow what when making incisions

Langer's Lines

98

high risk incisions include what

- pararectus ( along lateral border of rectus sheath) and inguinal incisions

99

incisions on pararectus is unadvised why

because you may cut the nerve supply

100

during inguinal incisions to repair hernia you may harm the

ilioinguinal nerve

101

incisional hernia

hernia due to incision ( protrusion or organ or omentum(fold of peritoneum)

102

incisional hernia can result from

muscular and aponeurotic layers not healing properly

103

factors that can lead to incisional hernia are

- age
- obesity
- postoperative wound infection

104

many abdominal procedures are performed how today?

endoscope