Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Flashcards Preview

Anatomy BLOCK 2 > Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Deck (89):
1

what is the largest organ and gland in the body

the liver

2

what does the liver produce and secrete

bile

3

what does bile help to do

break down fat

4

the liver produces what two bile pigments

biliruben and biliverdin

5

what it a breakdown of hemoglobin

bilrubin and bilverdin

6

how does the liver detoxify

it filters the blood to remove bacteria and foreign particles

7

how does the liver store carbohydrates

as glycogen

8

what is a breakdown of glycogen

glucose

9

what is gylcogen in solid form

glucosw

10

what produces and stores lipids

the liver, stores them as triglycerides

11

blood coagulants are also created in where

the liver

12

anticoagulants do what

destroy blood clots

13

the liver is divided into what kind of lobes

- 2 topographical
-2 accessory

14

what are the four lobes of the liver

- caudate
- quadrate
-left
-right

15

which lobes are not true lobes and are only secondarily related to the liver

- caudate
-quadrate

16

what are the segments of the right lobe of the liver

anterior and posterior

17

what are the segments of the left lobe

medial and lateral

18

what is the medial superior segment of the liver

caudate

19

what is the medial inferior segment of the liver

quadrate

20

what can be considered a third liver

caudate lobe

21

why is the caudate lobe considered the 3rd liver

because it is independently vascularized

22

what joins to form the common hepatic duct

right and left hepatic ducts

23

what does the cystic duct unite with to form the bile duct

the common hepatic duct

24

bile accumulates where during meals

in the gallbladder

25

what are the three surfaces of the liver

-diaphragmatic surface
-visceral surface
- inferior border

26

what separates the subphrenic recess into right and left parts

the falciform liagment

27

what is the space that is directly under the liver called

subhepatic space

28

what is between the right of the visceral surface of the liver and the right kidney

hepatorenal recess

29

what is the lowest gravity dependent part of the peritoneal cavity in the supine position

the hepatorenal recess

30

fluid and cells accumulate where due to it being the lowest gravitational area

hepatorenal recess

31

the subphrenic recess is a common site for what?

collection of pus

32

why are subphrenic abscess more common on the right side?

because there is a frequency of the appendix rupturing, and duodenal ucers

33

how is a subphrenic abscess usually drained?

by an incision inferior to or through the bed of the 12th rib

34

where is the bare area on the liver

on the posterior portion

35

where is the liver not covered with peritoneum

- fossa of gallbladder
- porta hepatis

36

what fissure of the liver is located between the caudate lobe and teh lateral portion of the left lobe

ligamentum venosum

37

what fissure is located between the left lateral lobe and the quadrate lobe

the round ligament

38

what is located between e quadrate lobe and the major part of the right lobe

fossa of the gall bladder

39

what fissure is located between the caudate lobe and the major part of the right lobe

right sagital fissure

40

what is the transverse fissure on the visceral surface of the liver between quadrate and caudate lobes

porta hepatis

41

what did the round ligament of the liver used to be

the umbilical vein

42

which ligaments inclose the bare area

the right and left triangular ligaments

43

what is the anterior layer of the coronary ligament

falciform ligament

44

wat used to be very important for nutrition in vitro

round ligamnet

45

what two ligamenta make up the lesser omentum

-hepatogastric and hepatoduodenal ligaments

46

the gastric and pyloric areas on the liver are where

right side of the anterior aspect of the stomach

47

what is the hepatic artery a branch of

the celiac trunk

48

what is it called when the liver cells are progressively destroyed and replaced by fatty and fibrous tissue

liver cirrhosis

49

what is liver cirrhosis caused by

- alcoholism
- hepatitis B, C, and D
- ingesting of posions

50

what can destroy the liver

acetaminophen can destroy liver

51

what increases blood pressure in the portal vein

liver cirrhosis

52

how is a liver biopsy performed

needle puncture of the skin which goes through the right 8th or 9th intercostal space in the right midaxillary line. Use an ultrasound

53

who tend to have angionas more

women, due to birth control and hormone pills

54

where is bile produced continuously

by the liver

55

where does the gallbladder release bile

when fat enters the duodenum

56

what secretes bile into the bile canaliculi

hepatocytes

57

what forms from the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct

common bile duct

58

what is the length of the bile duct

5-15 cm

59

what are the arteries that supply bile duct

-cystic artery
- right hepatic artery
- posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
-gastrorudenal arter

60

cystc lymph nodes that are on the bile duct are a good way to spread what

cancer

61

What are the three areas of lymph that supply the bile duct

- cystic lymph nodes ( near the neck of the gallbladder)
- node of omental foramen
- hepatic lymph nodes

62

where is the gallbladder located

right 9th costal cartilage and the lateral border of the rectus abdominis

63

how much bile can the gallbladder hold

30-50 ml of bile

64

what two things is the gallbladder in contact wth

the duodenum and the transverse colon

65

where is the fundus of the gallbladder

at the tip of the right ninth costal cartilage. contacts the transverse colon

66

what part of the gallbladder rest on the upper part of the duodenum and the transverse colon

the body

67

what gives rise t the cystic duct with spiral valves (Heister's valves)

the neck of the gallbladder

68

the cystic duct serves as what to the gall bladder with its spiral shape

cystic duct of the gallbladder

69

what hormone is produced by the duodenal mucosa that is responsible for making the gallbladder contract?

cholecystokinin

70

where does gallbladder get arterial supply from

the cystic artery

71

what is the cystic duct a branch of

the right hepatic artery

72

what is the abnormal pouch also called Hartmann's pouch?

the ampulla of the gallbladder

73

where is it common to find gall stones

Hartmanns pouch (ampulla of the gallbladder)

74

gallstones usually collect where

in the infundibulm

75

gallbladders that have a short mesententery are subject to what

vascular torsion and infarction ( lack of blood supply from veins and arteries)

76

what makes surgery of the gallbladder hard

the fact that there can be many hepatic ducts

77

3 main types of gallstones

- cholesterol stone
- pigment stone
- brown stones

78

which gall stones are usually seen in obese peopel and are found alot in western countries

yellow, cholesterol stones

79

what gallstones are black in color and are related to bilirubin calcium salts

pigment stones

80

which gall stones are brown and are due to bacteria or parasites

brown stones

81

how do cholecystenteric fistulas happen

when part of the gallbladder is inflammed and it adheres to viscera around it, then the adhesion ulcerates causing a fistula

82

what is gallstone ileus?

when a gallstone passes from gallbladder to the small intestine producing a bowel obstruction

83

the pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ except what part?

the tail

84

what are the functions of the pancreas?

- exocrine secretion (pancreatic juice)

-endocrine secreation(produces insulin, glucagon, somatostatin)

85

3 hormones that the pancreas secreates

insulin
glucogen
somatostatin

86

what are the two ducts of the pancreas

- Duct of wirsung
- Duct of Santorini

87

arterial supply for pancreas starts where

celiac trunk

88

what accounts for most cases of extra-hepatic obstruction of the billiary ducts

cancer that involves the pancreatic head

89

when can obstructive jaundice happen

when there is cancer in the head of the pancreas and it obstructs the bile duct causing there to be a retention of bile pigments and it enlarges the gall bladder