Peritoneum, Omentum, Ligaments Flashcards Preview

Anatomy BLOCK 2 > Peritoneum, Omentum, Ligaments > Flashcards

Flashcards in Peritoneum, Omentum, Ligaments Deck (88):
1

what is the continuous, glistening and slippery transparent serous membrane

peritoneum

2

what lines the abdominopelvic cavity and invest the viscera

peritoneum

3

what are the two layers of the peritoneum

parietal and visceral

4

what lines the surface of the abdominopelvic wall

parietal peritoneum

5

what lines the viscera like the stomach and the intestines

visceral peritoneum

6

both of the layers consist of a layer of simple squamous epithelial cells what is it called

meothelium

7

what is the pain like from the parietal peritoneum

generally localized

8

if someone is experiencing pain in he inferior surface of the central tendon of the diaphragm where is the pain often referred?

C3-C5 dermatomes over the shoulder

9

what is the visceral peritoneum insensitive too?

touch
heat
cold
laceration

10

what are the two things that are known to stimulate the visceral peritoneum

stretching and chemical reactions

11

pain from the forgut is felt wheree

epigastric region

12

pain from midgut is felt where

umbilical region

13

pain from hindgut is felt where

pubic region

14

what is it called when an organ is completley covered with visceral peritoneum

intraperitoneal

15

example of intraperitoneal organs

spleen and stomach

16

extraperitoneal, retroperitoneal, and subperitoneal all refer to organs that are what

outside of the peritoneal cavity or only partially covered by peritoneum

17

extraperitoneal

organs that lie outside of the peritoneum like the kidneys that have parietal peritonaeum on their anterior surface conly

18

the bladder has what kind of peritoneum

extraperitoneal, peritoneum is only on the superior sruface

19

subperitoneal?

deep to or underneath the peritoneum

20

retroperitoneal

behind the peritoneum

21

peritoneal cavity is between what

the visceral and the parietal peritoneum

22

what does the peritoneal cavity consist of

it doe not contain organs but it has a thin film of fluid

23

what is the thin layer of peritoneal fluid in the peritoneal cavity full of

-water
-electrolytes
-interstial fluid from adjacent tissue

24

what allows viscera to move over each other freely

peritoneal fluid

25

what aids in the movement of digestion

peritoneal fluid

26

what does the peritoneal fluid contain that resist infection

-antibodies
-leukocytes

27

what absorbs peritoneal fluid

the lymphatic vessels on the inferior surface of the active diaphragm

28

in males what is the state of the peritoneal cavity

completely closed

29

in females where is the communication pathway of the peritoneal cavity

in the uterine tubes, uterine cavity, and vagina

30

the communication of the peritoneal cavity in females (tubes, vagina, uterine cavity) is a pathway for what

infections

31

why is it rare for organisms to enter the female peritoneal cavity through uterine tubes

because of the protective mechanism of the female reproductive tract

32

what is the primary mechanism for preventing infection in the female peritoneal cavity

a mucus plug that blocks the external opening of the uterus

33

hysterosalpingography

where air is passed through the uterine tubes

* if the dye can go through the peritoneal cavity from the uterus then you know there is a problem

34

why is it that patients experience a lot of pain when they have a large invasive surgery as opposed to a small laproscopic incision

because the peritoneum is well innervated

35

what makes watertight end to end anastomoses of intraperitoneal organs

the serosa (covering of the peritoneum)

36

what is more difficult to achieve watertight anastemoses

extraperitoneal structures like the esophagus

37

why are efforts made to remain outside of the peritoneal cavity whenever possible during and operation

because of the high chance of peritonitis and adhesion

(extraperitoneal or translumbar approach)

38

what is it called when bacterial contamination during laparotomy or when the gut is traumatically penetrated or ruptured , therefore allowing gas, fecal matter, and bacteria into the peritoneal cavity?

peritonitis

39

what is it called when the abdominal muscles tense up and you cannot palpate the area

guarding- protecting the organs inside, usually due to inflammation or fluid

40

when is peritonits lethal

when it becomes generalized, because then it spreads

41

common signs of peritonitis

- severe abd pain
-tenderness
- nausea
-vomiting
-fever
-constipation

42

when does general peritonits occur

only as a result of infection or when an ulcer perforates the wall of the stomach or duodenum (this spills acid into the peritoneal cavty)

43

exces fluid in the peritoneal cavity is called

ascitic fluid ( Ascites)

44

Some reason in which ascites can occur

- mechanical injury
- portal hypetension (venous congestion)
- cancer cells
- starvation

45

acites poses a problem for breathing why

becuase when the abdomen is full of H2O the diaphragm cannot move as well

46

how do people with peritonitis commonly lie due to intense pain they feel

with their knees flexed to relax their abdominal muscles and breath very shallowly (rapidly)

47

what happens to the peritoneum if it is damaged by something like a stab wound

the peritoneal surfaces become inflammed and sticky with fibrin

48

fibrin can replace with what?
causing what?

may replace with fibrous tissue

forming abnormal attachments between viscera peritoneum and adjacent viscera and parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall

49

adhesions/ scar tissue can form when

after abdominal surgery

50

intestinal obstruction when the gut becomes twisted around an adhesion is called

volvulus (due to Adhesions)

* must repair in 24 hours

51

adhesiotmy

surgical separation of adhesions

52

when do we usually find adhesions

during dissecting cadavers (like spleen and diaphragm)

53

what is the treatment of generalized peritonitis

-removal of ascitic fluid and giving large dose of antibiotics

54

paracentesis

surgical puncture of the peritoneal cavity for draining fluid

55

why is needle inserted in the linea alba for paracentesis?

because laterally may damage inferior epigastric artery

56

when performing paracenteis it is good to have an empty bladder why

because then it does not move around and you insert the needle above it

57

fluid injected into the peritoneal cavity is absorbed rapidly why

because of the large surface area

58

what happens in renal failure

waste products like urea accumulate in the blood and tissues and can reach fatal levels

59

the use of peritoneal dialysis

may be performed in which a soluble substance and excess water are removed from the system by using a sterile solution coming in on one side of the peritoneum and draining out on the other (good for renal failure)

60

peritoneal dialysis is usually temporary for long term what should be used

renal dialysis machine ( direct blood flow)

61

mesentery?

a double layer of peritoneum that occurs because of the invagination of the peritoneum by an organ

62

what provides means for neurovascular communication between organ and body wall?

mesentery

63

a mesentery connects what two things

an intraperitoneal organ to the body wall (usually posterior abdominal wall, i.e. small intestine)

64

small intestine mesentery is referred to as what

mesentery

65

mesentery of the following:
-esophagus
- stomach
-appendix
-colon

mesoesophagus
mesogastrium
mesoappendix
mesocolons (transverse and sigmoid)

66

what does the core of mesentery consist of

connective tissue containing
-blood
-lymph vessels
-nerves
-lymph nodes
-fat

67

what is an omentum

a double layered extension /fold of peritoneum that passes from the stomach and proximal part of duodenum to adjacent organs in the abdominal cavity

68

greater omentum

prominent peritoneal fold that hangs down like an APRON from the greater curvature of the stomach and proximal part of duodenum

69

after decsending what does the greater omentum connect to

the anterior surface of the transverse colon and its mesentery

70

lesser omentum?

connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and proximal part of duodenum to the liver

71

peritoneal ligament

is the double layer of peritoneum that connects an organ with another organ or to the abdominal wall

72

what attached the liver to the anterior abdominal wall

falciform ligament

73

what attaches stomach to liver

hepatogastric ligament (membraneous portion of lesser omentum)

74

liver is connect to duodenum how

hepatodudenal lig

75

hepatogastric and hepatoduodenal ligaments are continuous parts of what

lesser omentum

76

stomach is connected to inferior surface of diaphragm by what

gastrophrenic ligament

77

stomach is attached to spleen by what

gastrosplenic ligament

78

stomach is attached to colon transverse colon by..

gastrocolic ligament (apron like part of greater omentum)

79

bare areas

areas on organs that are uncovered by visceral peritoneum to allow neurovascular structures in

80

peritoneal fold

a reflection of peritoneum that is raised from the body wall by underlying blood vessels, ducts, and obliterated fetal vessels)

81

what fold contains the inferior epigastirc arteries

umbilical fold

82

what is known as a pouch of peritoneum that is formed by the peritoneal fold

peritoneal fossa or recess

83

what prevents visceral peritoneum from adhering to the parietal peritoneum

greater omentum

84

all energy gets stored here and fat will be here

greater omentum

85

the greater omentum can form adhesions to surrounding organs why

to wall it off from infections, like the appendix

this is common to find!

86

what cushions organs against injury and forms insulation against loss of body heat

greater omentum

87

what is the clinical importance of peritoneal recesses

the connection with the spread of pathological fluids like pus

88

what do the recess determine in regards to inflammation

the extent and direction of the spread of fluids