Abdominal Vasculature Flashcards Preview

Abdominal Scanning > Abdominal Vasculature > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdominal Vasculature Deck (123):
1

What are the major parts of the abd venous system?

1. IVC
2. IMV
3. Renal veins
4. SMV
5. splenic vein
6. portal veins
7. hepatic veins

2

How do the venous vessels look in u/s?

tube-like structions with well-defined, echogenic walls and an echofree lumn, but the wall of arteries and portal venous structures will be more echogenic than the thinner walled veins.

3

What are the great vessels of the ventral cavity?

IVC and aorta

4

What is the function of the IVC?

to transport deoxygenated blood towards the heart

5

In real time imaging arteries show...

pulsations.

6

The lumens in the veins open and close with...

respiration.

7

What produces a more variable response with respiration?

valsalva maneuver

8

What happens when a patient does a valsalva maneuver?

The vessel distention may be greater when the patient holds his breath after a deep inspiration.

9

Why are arteries not influenced by respiration?

Arterial walls are thick and strong which enables the vesssel to withstand alterations in intra-abdominal pressure.

10

How is the IVC formed?

The IVC arises from the union of the two common iliac veins.

11

How are the common iliac veins formed?

From the union of the internal and external iliac veins

12

Where does the IVC course?

through the retroperitoneum, to the right of the aorta, and anterolateral to the vertebral processes

13

The IVC lies ___ to the right kidney and ___ to the liver.

medial, posterior

14

What multiple tributaries does the IVC give rise to which can be accessible with u/s through vascular exams?

lumbar veins, right suprarenal vein, right gonadal vein

15

What's the only vessel posterior to the IVC?

right renal artery

16

What does the venous system contain within the lumen of the vessel that helps the blood move forward?

valves

17

If the valves leak or are damaged, what do we call the flow of blood in those vessels when it goes in reverse or backwards?

retrograde flow

18

T/F? The venous system usually demonstrated pulsatile flow.

False. The only time the venous system demonstates pulsatile flow is close to the heart or in right-sided CHF patients.

19

How does the IVC look in u/s?

The IVC is more elliptical than round with smaller AP measurement.

20

Where does the IVC begin to widen?

at the level of the renal veins

21

What is rouleaux formation?

red cell aggregation causing internal echos

22

When is rouleaux formation observed?

rouleaux formation may be observed in any large vein as larger veins have slower flow. Slow flow enhances rouleaux formation.

23

What are the sections of the IVC?

hepatic, pre-renal, renal, post-renal

24

What is the hepatic section?

where the hepatic veins empty into the IVC

25

Which is the prerenal section?

inferior to the hepatic veins, but suprerior to the renal veins

26

Which is the renal section?

where the renal veins and the multiple tributaries are

27

Which is the post-renal section?

extends just inferior to the renal veins until the bifurcation

28

Why do we look at the IVC?

to detect introluminal thrombus or tumor invasion

29

THe tumor invasion most commonly ocurs in the ___ ___ and extends into the ___.

renal veins, IVC

30

What is the most common tumor to involve the IVC?

renal cell carcinoma

31

What are some normal variants of the IVC?

double IVC or left-positioned IVC, or a portion of the vessel may be absent (these are uncommon)

32

Where do the hepatic veins originate and where do they empty into?

originates in the liver and empties into the IVC

33

the hepatic veins are located ___ to the renal veins.

superior

34

What are the three major hepatic veins?

right, middle, and left

35

Which vein is responsible for draining all the venous blood out of the liver?

hepatic vein

36

Which lobes do the right, left and the middle hepatic vein empty?

right lobe, left lobe, and the caudate lobe

37

The hepatic vein ___ in diameter as they approach the IVC.

increases

38

What causes the playboy bunny/moosehead sign?

Transversely the hepatic veins look like anechoic linear structures that empty into the IVC

39

The hepatic veins exhibit ___, which is a reflection of ___ and ___ activity.

pulsatility, cardiac, and respiratory

40

The flow direction away from the organ is called...

hepatafugal

41

What are the small veins that drain directly into the IVC?

caudate lobe veins (occasionally seen on u/s)

42

Suprarenal veins are also called...

adrenal veins (not normally seen on u/s)

43

From where does the renal vein return blood and where does it empty?

kidney, IVC

44

Renal veins lie ___ to the level of the renal arteries.

superior

45

Left renal vein is ___ than the right renal vein.

longer

46

Which other veins does the left renal vein receive?

Left renal vein receives the left gonadal vein and the left suprarenal vein.

47

THe left renal vein passes posterior to the ___ vein and ___ ___ & ___ prior to entering the IVC.

splenic vein, pancreas body & tail

48

The LRV courses anterior to the ___ and lies between the ___ ___ and the ___.

aorta, aortic wall and the SMA

49

Why does the left renal vein engorge?

compression by the SMA and aorta

50

Where does the LRV appear dilated?

prior to crossing inbetween the SMA and aorta

51

Which renal vein is shorter?

right renal vein

52

Where does the right gonadal vein drain into?

the IVC

53

THe right renal vein may also receive the ___ ___ ___.

right suprarenal vein

54

Representing the gender, the gonadal veins are also known as...

testicular and ovarian veins

55

Where do the left and right gonadal veins drain into?

Left - into the left renal vein
Right - into the IVC inferior to the right renal vein

56

What does the azygos and hemi azygos vein provide?

alternate pathway for venous return in the case of IVC obstruction

57

Where is the azgyos vein located?

right

58

Where is the hemi azygos vein located?

left

59

What can be mistaken for the right crus? How must this mistake be checked?

For either the right renal artery or vein, follow the vessels

60

Why won't the left and right veins be symmetrical?

veins' diameter is very variable

61

Why would the veins appear as large as the IVC?

prior to entering the IVC

62

Why would the renal veins and arteries be confusing and what must we do?

Renal veins are generally anterior to the renal arteries, however crossing over is not uncommon; using pulsed wave or color doppler would be helpful.

63

What are the reasons for the IVC to get displaced?

1. liver mass
2. right renal artery aneursym
3. lymphadenopathy
4. a tortuous aorta
5. right renal or adrenal mass

64

What would be a reason to u/s the IVC?

to detect intraluminal thrombus or tumor invasion

65

If a tumor is seen in the renal veins, what other vessel would one interrogate and why?

Renal vein tumors are most likely to invade the IVC, so look for at the IVC for tumor extension.

66

What is the name of the flow of blood if it's flowing away from the liver?

hepatofugal

67

What is the opposite of hepatofugal?

hepatopetal (towards the liver)

68

What 2 veins enter the left renal vein instead of the IVC?

left gonadal and left suprarenal veins

69

The ___ ___ system does not enter the IVC.

portal venous

70

What is the function of the portal venous system?

to deliver blood from the spleen and the gastrointestnal tract to the liver metabolism and detoxification

71

What is the portal venous system made up of?

1. portosplenic confluence
2. main portal vein
3. right portal vein with branches
4. left portal vein with branches

72

Which is the largest vein of the portal venous system?

splenic vein

73

T/F? Splenic vein is less tortuous than the splenic artery.

True.

74

Where does the splenic vein begin?

at the hilum of the spleen

75

The splenic vein passes tranversely to the ___ across the posterior abdominal wall ___ to the splenic artery and ___ to the body and tail of the pancreas.

right, inferior, posterior

76

What does the splenic vein drain?

Part of the pancreas and stomach, and the spleen

77

What is used as a landmark for locating the pancreas?

splenic artery and vein

78

The splenic vein is located ___ to the pancreatic body and tail.

superior

79

What vessels form teh portosplenic confluence?

SMV, IMV, splenic vein

80

What vessel joins the splenic vein to form the portosplenic confluence?

IMV

81

What organs does the IMV drain?

The IMV drains the inferior part of the large itestines, primarily the area along the rectum, sigmoid area and the dexcending colon.

82

From its origin, the IMV courses ___.

superiorly

83

When is the IMV seen with u/s?

When IMV dilates with PHTN

84

Where does the SMV orginiate?

SMV originates at the ileocecal valve where the ileum and small intestine join the cecum of the large intestine

85

Where does the SMV course?

SMV courses superiorly towards the midline

86

The main portal vein ascends obliquely to the ___ passing posterior to the superior portion of ___, ___, ___ and ___ and anerior to the ___.

right, duodenum, common bile duct, proper hepatic artery and GDA, IVC

87

How much blood does the main portal vein supply to the liver?

80%

88

How much blood does the hepatic artery supply to the liver?

20%

89

How long is the main portal vein and where does it begin?

8 cm long, posterior to the pancreatic neck

90

What landmark is used for the pancreatic neck?

porto-splenic confluence/SMV

91

The MPV courses ___ and ___ about ___ before it enters the liver.

superiorly, laterally, 5-6 cm

92

Where does the MPV enter the liver?

porta hepatis

93

After the MPV enters the liver it divides into ___ and ___ ___ ___.

right and left portal veins.

94

What vessels make up the porta hepatis?

MPV, PHA, CHD

95

Why is the porta hepatis called the mickey mouse sign?

In the oblique scanning plane, the three vessels look lke the head and ears of mickey mouse

96

Which portal vein is longer and has a smalled diameter?

The left portal vein is longer and has smaller diameter than the RPV.

97

Before entering the left lobe of the liver the LPV gives branches to which lobe?

caudate lobe

98

What is the origin of the LPV and where does it course?

the MPV, medially

99

The LPV branches into the ___ and ___ segment.

medial and lateral

100

WHat does the LPV and its medial and lateral branches look like in a transverse scanning plane? What is the sign called?

Horns of a steer - the steer head sign

101

What portal vein is shorter and larger?

RPV

102

Which vein originates from the RPV? What does it do before entering the right lobe of the liver?

The cystic vein originates from the RPV and gives a branch to the caudate lobe before entering the right lobe of the liver.

103

The RPV courses ___ ___ and then divides into branches called the ___ and ___ segments.

right, laterally, anterior and posterior

104

How can the portal vein be distinguished from other structures, especially the hepatic vein?

it has highly echogenic walls

105

Why does the portal vein have echogenic walls?

high collagen content in the walls

106

Why are the portal veins evaluated?

for thrombosis and tumor invasion and for PHTN

107

How must the portal ven be evaluated?

with color doppler and duplex doppler and should show blood flowing into the liver (hepatopetal flow)

108

Where does the common hepatic artery arise from? What does it bifurcate into?

the celiac axis, the GDA and proper hepatic artery

109

Just prior to the bifurcation the CHA passes ___ to the MPV.

anterior

110

Where does the proper hepatic artery begin? Where does it ascend to ?

at the bifurcation, the porta hepatis of the liver within the folds of the hepatoduodenal ligament

111

What does the PHA divide into?

into the right and left hepatic arteries within the porta hepatis

112

What does the right hepatic artery give rise to?

the cystic artery

113

What does the cystic artery supply?

the gallbladder, hepatic ducts and part of the CBD

114

T/F? The portal venous system enters the IVC.

False

115

What vessel is a definate landmark for locating the pancreas?

splenic vein

116

What is the name of the ligament that crosses over the celiac axis?

median arcuate ligament

117

What vessel supplies the liver with 80% of its blood supply and originates behind the pancreas neck?

MPV

118

What is the steerhead sign?

the medial and lateral branches of teh left portal vein

119

What is the mickey mouse sign?

the portal triad oblique

120

What segments do the right portal vein branch into?

anterior and posterior

121

What does the proper hepatic artery divide into?

right and left hepatic artery

122

What vessel does the right hepatic artery give rise to?

cystic artery which feeds the gallbladder

123

Where does the cystic vein originate and what does a branch of that vessel feed?

It comes off the right portal vein and the branch of the cystic vein feeds the caudate lobe.