Renal System Flashcards Preview

Abdominal Scanning > Renal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal System Deck (290):
1

As early as the ___ week, the kidneys begin to form. the nephrons start functioning at around ___ weeks.

third, eight

2

Kidney migration from the pelvis to their final location is not complete until ___ years old.

six

3

A normal adult kidney measures...

9-12 cm.

4

The parechymal volume of the ___ kidney is smaller than the ___.

right, left

5

The left kidney usually lies __ cm higher than the right.

1-2 cm

6

The vessels enter the renal pelvis in this order, anterior to posterior...

vein, artery, ureter

7

The adrenal gland is ___ to the right kidney.

superiormedial

8

The liver is ___ to the right kidney.

superiolateral

9

The right colic flexure is ___ to the right kidney.

inferior

10

The 2nd portion of the duodenum is ___ to the right kidney.

medial

11

The adrenal gland is ___ to the left kidney.

superior

12

The spleen is ___ to the left kidney.

superior

13

The pancreatic tail is ___ to the superior pole of the left kidney.

anterior

14

The left colic flexure is ___ to the left kidney.

inferior

15

The diaphragm is ___ to the kidneys.

posterior

16

The psoas and quadratus lumborum muscle are ___ to the kidneys.

posterior

17

The cortex is the ___echoic part of the renal parenchyma.

iso or hypo

18

The medullary pyramids are the ___echoic part of the renal parenchyma.

an

19

The renal sinus is the ___echoic part of the renal parenchyma.

hyper

20

This is the outer part of the renal parenchyma, from the sinus to the capsule.

renal cortex

21

This is the inner part of the renal parenchyma, from the base of the pyramids to the center of the kidney.

renal medulla

22

This is the cavity within the kidney that houses the renal pyramid.

renal sinus

23

These pass into the renal sinus through the hilum.

nerves and blood vessels

24

These appear as anechoic equally spaced triangles between the cortex and renal sinus.

medullary pyramids

25

This is a funnel shaped transition from the major calyces to the ureter.

renal pelvis or collecting system

26

This is the medial opening of the kidney, the entry/exit of the artery, vein, and ureter.

renal hilum

27

This is the slit-like opening in the middle of the concave medial border of the kidney.

renal hilum

28

These are the recesses in the internal medulla of the kidney which enclose the pyramids.

the renal calyces

29

This is the portion of the urinary collecting system within the kidney that unite to form the renal pelvis.

major calyx

30

This is the portion of the urinary collecting system that collects urine from the medullary pyramids.

minor calyces

31

This is the apex of the medullary pyramids.

renal papilla

32

This is the fibrous sheath enclosing the kidney and the adrenal glands.

gerota's fascia

33

This is the functional unit of the kidney.

nephron

34

This consists of the renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubules, descending and ascending limbs of henle's loop, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting tubules.

nephron

35

There are about ___ nephrons is the cortex of each kidney.

one million

36

This consists of the glomerulus and glomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule.

renal corpuscle

37

At the renal hilum, the main renal artery divides into how many of what kind of artery?

five, segmental

38

At the level of the medullary pyramids, the segmental arteries divide into the ___ arteries, which run between the pyramids.

interlobar

39

At the base of the medullary pyramids, the ___ arteries branch in a manner that is parallel to the renal capsule.

arcuate

40

Branching off the arcuate arteries and running perpendicular to the renal capsule are the smallest renal arteries, called...

interlobular arteries.

41

T/F? Congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract are more common than any other organ system.

true

42

Impaired renal function, infection, and calculus formation are complications associated with...

congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract.

43

Variations of the normal genitourinary tract are...

-junctional defects -hypertrophied column of bertin -dromedary hump -ectopic kidney -horseshoe kidney -fused pelvic kidney -crossed fused renal ectopia -duplex kidney -renal agenesis -extrarenal pelvis

44

This is a partial fusion of two parenchymal renal masses during normal development.

junctional parenchymal defect or fetal lobulation

45

Sonographically, these appear as a triangular hyperechoic area anterior and superior on the right kidney.

junctional parenchymal defect or fetal lobulation

46

This is a normal variant located between 2 medullary pyramids that gives the appearance of a mass effect.

hypertrophied column of bertin

47

Sonographically, this normal variant has an echogenicity equal to the peripheral cortical tissue and may be confused with a double collecting system.

hypertrophied column of bertin

48

This is a normal variant of cortical thickening on the lateral aspect of the left kidney.

dromedary hump

49

This condition results from a failure of the kidneys to 'ascend' into the abdomen; there is an increased incidence of UPJ, ureteral reflux and multicystic renal dysplasia.

ectopic kidney or pelvic kidney

50

This is the most common renal fusion anomaly in which the lower poles typically connect across the midline anterior to the aorta.

horseshoe kidney

51

In this common renal fusion anomaly, the large u-shaped kidney lies in the hypogastrium because it is prevented from ascending by the IMA.

horseshoe kidney aka 'cake' or 'lump' kidney

52

Sonographically, the isthmus of the horseshoe kidney is frequently mistaken for ___. The ureters are typically located ___ to the isthmus.

lymphandenopathy, anterior

53

In this common renal variant, the upper and lower poles of pelvic kidneys fuse.

fused pelvic kidney aka 'discoid' or 'pancake' kidney

54

Sonographically, this common renal variant appears as a round irregular lobulated mass in the pelvis.

fused pelvic kidney

55

This is the 2nd most common renal fusion variant.

crossed fused ectopic kidney

56

In the common renal variant, the developing kidneys fuse within the pelvis and one kidney ascends to its normal position, carrying the other one with it across the midline.

crossed fused ectopic kidney

57

Sonographically, two kidneys are visualized on one side of the abdomen with the absence of a contralateral kidney. Ureters connect on both sides of the bladder thus one ureter crosses the midline.

crossed fused ectopic kidney

58

This is a common renal variant in which there's a duplication of the collecting systems, occuring in approximately 15% of the population. May be complete (two ureters) or incomplete (one ureters).

duplex kidney

59

Sonographically, these kidneys look longer than normal and have a complete central cortical break within the hyperechoic sinus.

duplex kidney

60

With complete double ureters, the ureter draining the ___ pole typically inserts in an ectopic location in the bladder.

superior

61

A frequent complication of ectopic ureter is a...

ureterocele.

62

This is a prolapse of the distal ureter into the bladder, resulting in a hydroureter and hydronephrosis of the upper collecting system of the kidney.

ureterocele

63

In this common renal variant, the collecting system lies outside the renal sinus.

extrarenal pelvis

64

Sonographically, this appears as acystic collection medial the renal hilum.

extrarenal pelvis

65

This renal condition is associated with oligohydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia and is incompatible with life.

bilateral renal agenesis

66

This renal condition is associated with uterine duplication (bicornuate uterus) and sminal vesicle agenesis.

unilateral renal agenesis

67

This is a rare renal anomaly in which a third kidney, smaller than the other two, is present.

supranumerary kidney

68

This renal condition is a common cause of urinary obstruction in the male neonate patient.

posterior urethral valve

69

This renal condition involves an abnormal congenital membrane located within the posterior male urethra that obstructs it.

posterior urethral valve

70

Sonographically, this appears as a VERY large bladder, hydroureter, hydronephrosis*, and dilated posterior urethra ('keyhole' appearance).

posterior urethral valve

71

Posterior urethral valves account for about ___ of all boys with end-stage renal failure.

25%

72

What are the two categories of renal cysts?

acquired and congenital

73

T/F? Simple and non-simple cysts belong to the congenital category.

false, the acquired category

74

T/F? Cysts that are inflammatory, hemorragic, or septated are considered simple cysts.

false, non-simple

75

T/F? Simple cysts are rare.

false, common

76

Simple renal cysts are seen more commonly over what age?

50 yo

77

What part of the kidney are simple cysts usually located in?

cortex

78

Sonographically, this appears as an echogenic material layering the the dependent portion of a renal cyst, associated with reverberation echoes without shadowing.

pyelogenic cyst or calyceal diverticulum

79

In this renal condition, a simple renal cyst happens to connect the renal pelvis and becomes infected, causing recurring UTIs and a predisposition for stone formationand hematuria. Loin pain in a common initial symptom.

pyelogneic cyst or calyceal diverticulum

80

What is a renal sinus cyst that does not connect with the collecting system called?

parapelvic cyst

81

When scanning a parapelvic cyst, you should use Doppler to rule out what pathology with a similar appearance?

renal artery aneurysm

82

Is a parapelvic cyst simple or non-simple?

simple

83

T/F? A parapelvic cyst with always have smooth borders.

false, can have irregular borders with a hydro-cauliflower appearance

84

When echoes are seen within a renal cyst, the echoes should be seen in two view to rule out what?

artifact

85

What are the four criteria for a cyst?

-acoustic enhancement -absence of internal echoes -sharply defined thin walls -round or oval shape

86

If the renal cyst has a thick septation, irregular walls, and solid components within,...

it's an atypical cyst and suggests a malgnant lesion.

87

If the renal cyst has a thing septation, minimal wall calcification, no internal echoes (or just artifact),...

it's a typical benign cyst.

88

Patients with ___ have increased risk of non-simple cysts and calcifications of these cysts.

polycystic disease

89

T/F? It is possible for a non-simple cyst to be malignant.

true

90

A kissing cyst is simple or non-simple?

non-simple

91

This adult condition is a bilateral renal enlargement caused by numerous cysts of varying sizes.

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (APKD)

92

In advanced APKD, destruction of renal tissue leads to...

renal failure and hypertension.

93

The renal disease is associated with arterial aneurysms, especially the 'berry' aneursyms.

APKD

94

This is the most common genetically determined childhood cystic disease of the kidney.

Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD)

95

Sonographically, this appears in the fetus as bilaterally enlarged kidneys, hyperechoic kidney parenchyma with anechoic areas within them, oligohydramnios, distended bladder, and loss of cortical medullary distinction.

ARPKD

96

This is the most common cause of an abdominal mass in the newborn.

multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCKD)

97

This renal condition can be bi- or unilateral and is usually the result of atresia of the UPJ during fetal development.

MCKD

98

This renal condition involves the development of cortical and medullary cysts in patients with end stage kidney disease and on dialysis from noncystic causes.

acquired cystic disease

99

Acquired cysts can sometimes hemorrhage resulting in...

pain and hematuria.

100

___ cysts can sometimes hemorrhage resulting in pain and hematuris.

acquired

101

Patients with acquired cystic disease have a ___ times greated risk of developing renal cell carcinoma.

100

102

This is a congenital dysplastic cystic dialation of the medullary pyramids due to tubular ectasia or dysplasia.

medullary sponge kidney

103

In this renal condition, calcium deposits form in the medullary pyramids making them hyperechoic on u/s.

medullary sponge kidney

104

Sonographically, this appears as equally spaced calcified renal pyramids.

medullary sponge kidney

105

What are the two main complications of medullary sponge kidney?

stones and infections

106

Medullary sponge kidney is seen mainly in what age group?

children to young adults

107

Patients with medullary sponge kidneys often have what other pathology?

medullary nephrocalcinosis

108

This is an inherited disorder of elastic connective tissue.

Ehler-Danlos syndrome

109

What pathology is associated with parathyroid adenoma, Caroli's disease and Ehler-Danlos syndrome?

medullary sponge kidney

110

Is medullary sponge acquired or inherited?

acquired

111

What causes the cysts in ARPKD?

abnormal proliferation and dilation of renal tubules

112

ARPKD is associated with what other pathology?

hepatic fibrosis

113

In ADPKD, what other organs may contain cysts?

liver, pancreas, and spleen

114

This is an inherited disease which usually presents in the 2nd or 3rd decade of life with serious visual impairment.

Von Hippel-Landau disease

115

This syndrome can often have related tumors like renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytomas, and islet cell tumors.

Von Hippel-Landau disease

116

Von Hippel-Landau disease can often have related tumors like...

renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytomas, and islet cell tumors.

117

T/F? Pheochromocytomas are usually benign.

true

118

T/F? Islet cell tumors are usually malignant.

false, they can be either benign or malignant.

119

What makes Von Hippel-Landau disease different from ADPKD?

bilateral cysts AND masses; increased chance of carcinoma

120

Cysts is ACKD can appear in what two areas of the kidney?

cortex and medulla

121

T/F? It is common for cysts to hemorrhage in ACKD.

true

122

This is a benign fatty renal tumor, 80% of which occur in the right kidney.

angiomyolipoma aka renal hamartoma

123

Sonographically, this appears as a hyperechoic renal mass with an echogenicity equal to or greater than the renal sinus and propagation speed artifacts.

angiomyolipoma

124

These may result in the posterior displacement of structures due to the slower acoustic velocity.

propagation speed artifacts

125

This multi-system genetic disease causes benign tumors to grow on organs such as the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. It commonly affects the CNS.

tuberous sclerosis

126

What is the main focus of an abd eval in a patient with tuberous sclerosis?

kidneys

127

What might you be dealing with if you see several angiomyolipomas on a kidney?

tuberous sclerosis

128

Sonographically, what makes tuberous sclerosis different from ADPKD?

mutiple renal cysts AND angiomyolipomas

129

Tuberous sclerosis is closely associated with what three conditions?

-mental retardation -seizures -cutaneous lesions

130

This inherited cystic disease rapidly progresses with uremia and death.

autodomal dominant medullary cystic disease

131

Autosomal dominant medullary cystic disease has an onset in what general age group?

adult

132

Autosomal recessive medullary cystic disease has an onset in what general age group?

juvenile

133

What disease is marked by salt loss, anemia, puolyuria, and azotemia?

medullary cystic disease

134

What is azotemia?

uremia toxic ubstance not removed by kidney

135

What do endstage medullary cystic diseased kidneys look like?

small and echogenic

136

What is the most common renal cystic disease?

MCKD

137

Is multicystic dysplastic kidney acquired, inherited, or developmental?

developmental

138

Sonographically, the largest cyst in a patient with MDKD is located where?

periphery

139

Sonographically, what presents as large kidneys with multiple cysts of different sizes in children and infants?

MCKD

140

What is the only way that a baby can survive with a multcystic dysplastic kidney?

The baby must have one functioning kidney.

141

What happens to a MDKD in an adult?

The diseased kidney becomes small and calcified.

142

What is the appearance of the ureter of a multicystic dysplastic kidney?

It does not have a ureter.

143

This is the most common solid renal mass in the adult.

renal cell carcinoma or RCC

144

T/F? RCC is unilateral and a nephrectomy is recommended.

true

145

T/F? RCC extension into the renal veins and IVC are uncommon.

False, common. Always check all the way to the right atrium.

146

Sonographically, this appears as a hypoechoic in comparison to the adjacent renal tissue.

RCC

147

Clinically, this presents with hematuria, flank pain, and a palable mass.

RCC

148

Increase incidence of RCC is associated with...

-acquired cystic disease -Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome -tuberous sclerosis -ADPK

149

Acquired cystic disease, Von Hippel-Linday syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, and ADPK increase the incidence of...

RCC.

150

Cancers of the ___ are likely to spread to the kidney.

lung, breast, and colon; leukemia and lymphoma also spread renally.

151

Sonographically, this appears as a hypoechoic mass with a diffusely enarged inhomogeneous kidney.

renal metastases

152

The most common childhood renal tumor is...

Wilm's tumor or nephroblastoma.

153

For Wilm's tumor the average age of diagnosis is ___ and the survival rate is ___.

3.5 years, 90%

154

Clinically, this presents as a large asymptomatic flank mass, HTN, fever, hematuria and anemia.

Wilm's tumor

155

T/F? A Wilm's tumor can't extend into the renal vein and IVC.

false

156

If the renal contour is normal bilaterally, the abdominal mass is most likely...

an adrenal neuroblastoma.

157

This is a renal inflammation due to infection.

acute pyelonephritis

158

Most kidney infections occur via an ___ route and are usually caused by ___ from the intestinal tract.

ascending, gram negative bacilli

159

Sonographically, this appears as bilateral renal enlargement, hypoechoic parenchyma, and absence of sinus echoes.

acute pyelonephritis

160

This is a renal mass due to infection.

focal acute pyelonephritis or lobar nephronia

161

Sonographically, this appears as a focal wedge-shaped area or hypoechoic renal lobe.

focal acute pyelonephritis

162

RCC and focal acute pyelonephritis are differentiated by...

lab tests.

163

This renal bacterial infection is associated with renal ischemia. Nephrectomy is usually required.

emphysematous pylonephritis

164

This renal condition is common in diabetics, immunosuppressed patients and patients with urinary tract obstructions.

emphysematous pylonephritis

165

Sonographically, in this renal condition, the anaerobic bacteria produces intrarenal gas which causes reverberation or comet tail artifacts.

emphysematous pylonephritis

166

This is a bilateral injury to the kidney due to recurrent renal infections.

chronic pyelonephritis

167

Chronic pyelonephritis leads to ___, which will appear as a small hyperechoic kidney.

end stage renal disease

168

This chronic pyelonephritis results from chronic infections due to a long term obstruction.

xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis or XGPN

169

Failure to depict a normal kidney and associated with a staghorn calculus suggests the diagnosis of ___.

XGPN

170

In this renal condition, purulent material in the collecting system is associated with an infection secondary to renal obstruction.

pyonephrosis

171

Sonographically, this appears as hyperechoic debris in a dilated renal collecting system. (like hydronephrosis but with debris)

pyonephrosis

172

This is the most common renal fungal disease.

candidiasis

173

Fungal infections usually ascend from the...

bladder.

174

Sonographically these appear as hyperechoic nonshadowing masses in the renal system.

mycetoma aka fungal ball

175

What are the three main mechanisms of acute renal failure?

-prerenal -intrinsic -postrenal

176

Name an example of prerenal ARF.

decreased perfusion - heart failure followed by kidney failure and creatinine increase

177

Name an example of intrinsic ARF.

acute tubular necrosis is the most common

178

Name an example of postrenal ARF.

bilateral renal obstruction

179

What is the role of u/s in ARF?

to determine hydronephrosis (suggesting postrenal failure) and abnormal resistive index (suggesting intrinsic renal failure)

180

What lab studies are used for determining ARF?

-creatinine** -BUN -urinalysis -urine output (24 hour urine)

181

The most accurate method of determining ARF is...

creatinine changes that reflect a change in the flomerular filtration rate.

182

This sudden cause of prerenal failure presents as acute flank pain, hematuria, and sudden rise in blood pressure.

renal artery thrombosis

183

Sonographically, this appears as a focal hypoechoic areas of infarct, absence of intrarenal arterial flow and unilateral renal enlargement.

renal artery thrombosis

184

This renal condition is associated with extrinsic compression*, renal transplants*, renal tumors, and trauma.

renal vein thrombosis

185

Sonographically, this appears as a unilateral enlarged hypoechoic kidney*, dilated thrombosed renal vein*, absent intrrenal venous flow, and high resistance renal artery waveform.

renal vein thrombosis

186

How does renal vein thrombosis appear on arterial doppler?

It goes from 'low resistance' to 'high resistance' and loses its diastolic component.

187

This is the most common cause of renal disease or intrinsic ARF.

acute tubular necrosis

188

This renal condition results from prolonged ischemia or nephrotoxins that cause damage to the tubular epithelium of the nephron that leads to renal failure.

acute tubular necrosis

189

Sonographically, this appears as enlarged kidneys, increased RI, and hypoechoic pyramids.

acute tubular necrosis

190

This is an inflammatory response that results in glomerular damage caused by an infection, exposure to toxins or an autoimmune reaction.

acute glomerulonephritis

191

Clinically, this presents with sudden onset of hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia (too much nitrogen in the blood).

acute glomerulonephritis

192

Sonographically, this appears as enlarged kidneys and increased RI.

acute glomerulonephritis

193

What's it called when the renal pelvis and calyces are dialated?

hyrdonephrosis

194

What are the three common areas of obstruction in hydronephrosis?

-UPJ -UVJ -pelvic brim

195

Which area of obstruction is most common for a stone blockage?

UVJ

196

Common causes of hydro...

-calculi -BPH -prostate CA -pelvic malignancies -pregnancy

197

If left untreated hydro can lead to...

-HTN -loss of renal function -sepsis

198

This is a disorder of calcium metabolism that results in the formation of calcium renal stones and the deposit of calcum salts in the renal parenchyma.

nephrocalcinosis

199

Nephrocalcinosis is caused by...

-acute cortical necrosis -chronic glomerulonephritis -hyperparathyroidism -vitamin D intoxication -medullary sponge kidney -papillary necrosis -sarcoidosis -malignancies

200

Clinically, this renal condition presents with acute back or flank pain that radiates down to the ipsilateral groin. If it's severe then fever, chills, dysuria, cloudy urine and hematuria can accompany.

nephrocalcinosis

201

Sonographically, this appears as calcified renal pyramids with no shadowing and a thin cortex.

nephrocalcinosis

202

This renal condition accounts for 1% of all hospital admissions.

nephrolithiasis

203

Clinically, this renal condition presents with acute back or flank pain often radiating down to the ipsilateral groin.

nephrolithiasis

204

This is ischemia of the renal pyramids.

papillary necrosis

205

Papillary necrosis is associated with...

-analgesic abuse -DM -uti and ut obstructions -renal vein thrombosis -sickle cell disease -CHF -cirrhosis

206

Sonographically, this appears as echogenic material within the collecting system, triangular cystic collections, and bright echoes produced by the arcuate arteries at the periphery of the cystic space.

papillary necrosis

207

In this renal condition, cortical thinning is the result of renal sinus and perirenal fat increases and replacing the renal parenchyma.

renal sinus lipomatosis or fibrolipomatosis

208

This is a hollow muscular and distensible organ that sits on the pelvic floor.

urinary bladder

209

The ureters enter the bladder at the ___ angle of the trigone.

superiolateral

210

Normal bladder wall thickness is ___ in a non-distended bladder and ___ in a distended bladder.

less than 5 mm, less than 3 mm

211

The apex of the bladder points ___ and is connected to the umbilicus by the ___.

anteriorly, urachus (median umbilical ligament)

212

This is a tube that connects the belly button to the top of the bladder.

urachus

213

IF the urachus remains open postnatally, ___ is recommended.

surgery

214

The bladder is composed of four layers...

-serous -muscular -submucous -mucous

215

In this bladder anomaly, the mucosa herniates through the muscular wall.

bladder diverticula

216

Most bladder diverticuli are ___ in association with longstanding bladder outlet ___.

acquired, obstruction

217

Bladder diverticuli are most comonly seen in...

older men with enlarged prostates.

218

This is a cystic dilation of the fetal urachus.

urachal cyst

219

Sonographically, this is seen as a cystic structure superior and anterior to the fetal bladder.

urachal cyst

220

These are muscular ducts that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

ureters

221

In an adult, ureters are usually ___ long.

25-30 cm

222

Ureters descend on the ___ surface of the psoas muscles.

anterior

223

In the pelvis, the ureters cross ___ to the common iliac vessels.

anterior

224

This is a cyst-like enlargement of the lower end of the ureter which projects into the bladder lumen at the UVJ.

ureteroceles

225

This is associated with a duplex kidney and a complete ureteral duplication that results in obstruction of the upper pole collecting system.

ectopic ureteroceles

226

This is the most common bladder neoplasm.

transitional cell carcinoma

227

Sonographically, this appears as a mass or focal thickening of the bladder wall. Hematuria is the primary symptom.

transitional cell carcinoma

228

Other bladder masses...

-cystitis -prostate ca -squamous cell ca -blood clots -pyogenic debris -bladder papilloma -bladder stones

229

The normal renal artery demonstrates continuous forward flow during ___, typical of ___ resistance perfusion.

diastole, low

230

Resistive index is commonly used to...

-evaluate renal transplant rejection -access suspected hydro -evaluate renal disease

231

This is widely used to measure the resistance to arterial flow within the renal vascular bed and is calculated from the arterial waveform.

resistive index

232

The normal renal RI is..

less than or equal to 0.7.

233

If the RI is 0.7, diastole is ___% of systole.

30

234

The renal artery/aorta ratio (RAR) should be greater than....

3.5.

235

How much of the population have an RAR without significant turbulent flow?

0-59%

236

A small hard waveform that rises & falls slowly is called a...

parvus tardus

237

The most common cause of renal disease that leads to transplant is...

diabetes.

238

The treatment of choice for end stage renal disease is...

renal transplant.

239

Harvesting the ___ kidney is favored due to its longer renal vein.

left

240

The transplanted kidney is generally placed in the ___ portion of the pelvis, typically on the ___ side.

upper lateral, right

241

Poor function of the renal transplant may be the result of ___ immediately in the post-transplant period.

acute tubular necrosis

242

Post-renal transplant complications include...

-fluid collections -renal artery kinking or thrombosis -renal vein thrombosis.

243

Examples of fluid collections post-renal transplant?

hematomas, urinomas, lymphoceles, abscesses

244

Sonographically, this appears as renal enlargement*, prominent hypoechoic pyramids, loss of cortical-medullary borders, and increasing renal length in a renal transplant patient.

acute rejection of a renal transplant

245

A normal RI for renal transplant patients would be...

less than 0.7.

246

A questionable RI for renal transplant patients would be...

0.7-0.8.

247

An RI that indicated renal transplant dysfunction would be...

greater than 0.8.

248

RI in renal patients might rise for what four reasons?

-parenchymal -vascular -urological -technical

249

Examples of a renal parenchymal cause of increased RI?

acute transplant rejection acute tubular necrosis pyelonephritis

250

Examples of a renal vascular cause of increased RI?

renal vein thrombosis hypotension

251

Example of a urological cause of increased RI?

ureteral obstruction

252

Examle of a technical cause of increased RI?

graft compression

253

This is a microscopic exam of the sediment and qualitative evaluation of the protein, glucose, ketones, blood, nitrates, and WBCs.

urinalysis

254

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junctional fold defect

or

fetal lobulation

255

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column of bertin

256

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dromedary hump

257

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ectopic kidney

258

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horseshoe kidney

259

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cross fused kidney

260

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duplex kidney

261

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ureterocele

262

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extrarenal pelvis

263

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hydronephrosis

264

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supranumerary kidney

265

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posterior urethral valve

266

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renal cysts

267

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milk of calcium cyst

268

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peri or para pelvic cysts

269

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hemorrhagic cyst

270

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autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

ARPKD

271

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Multicystic dysplastic kidney

MCDK

272

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medullary sponge kidney

273

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angiomyolipoma

274

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RCC

275

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RCC

276

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RCC

277

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Wilm's tumor

278

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focal acute pyelonephritis

279

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xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

280

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fetal renal artery thrombosis

281

282

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acute tubular necrosis

283

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hydronephrosis

284

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nephrocalcinosis

285

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nephrolithiasis

286

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bladder diverticula

287

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urachal cyst

288

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transitional cell cancer

289

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parvus tardus waveform

290