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Abdominal Scanning > Spleen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spleen Deck (85):
1

This is the largest lympatic organ in the body.

spleen

2

T/F? The spleen is a retroperitoneal organ.

FALSE, it's peritoneal

3

This organ filters damaged cells and delivers antigens to the immune system.

spleen

4

Splenic arteries are sometimes called ___ arteries, due to their appearance on u/s.

brush

5

The spleen consists of what two kinds of pulp?

white and red

6

The ___ pulp of the spleen is lymphatic tissue consisting mainly of lymphocytes around arteries.

white

7

The white pulp of the spleen is ___ tissue consisting mainly of lymphocytes around ___.

lymphatic tissue, arteries

8

The ___ pulp of the spleen consists of venous sinuses filled with blood and cords of lymphatic cells.

red

9

The red pulp of the spleen consists of ___ filled with blood and cords of ___ cells.

venous sinuses, lymphatic

10

T/F? The spleen decreases in size and weight with advancing age.

true

11

The spleen ___ in volume while digestion is in progress and ___ when it is finished.

increases, returns to normal size

12

The spleen ___ in much the way that lymphnodes filter lymph.

filter blood

13

What does the spleen do to old and damaged RBCs?

removes them from the circulating blood

14

The spleen, like the bone marrow, can...

produce new red blood cells.

15

The spleen is both hemo___ and hemo___.

-lytic, -poietic

16

What two components of the spleen are joined at the hilum?

superomedial and inferolateral

17

The fundus of stomach is ___ to the splenic hilum.

medial and anterior

18

The diaphragm is ___ to the spleen.

posterior, superior and lateral

19

The pancreas tail is ___ to the stomach.

posterior

20

The pancreas tail is ___ to the splenic hilum.

medial and anterior

21

The lesser sac is ___ to the splenic hilum.

medial and anterior

22

The left kidney is ___ to the spleen.

medial and inferior

23

The splenic parenchyma is ___geneous with ___ echoes.

homo-, uniform mid to low level

24

Name four reasons to u/s the spleen.

1. show a mass and its composition
2. show the disruption of the splenic texture or outline
3. show its size
4. show changes in masses

25

A spleen larger than ___ is considered splenomegaly.

12 cm

26

Mild to moderate splenomegaly is usually caused by...

infection, portal hypertension, or AIDs.

27

Marked splenomegaly is usually the result of...

leukemia, lymphoma, or mononucleosis.

28

Massive splenomegaly is seen in...

myelofibrosis.

29

This is the most frequently observed abnormality of the spleen.

splenomegaly

30

Name the five causes of splenomegaly.

1. congestive
2. hematologic
3. infiltrative
4. metabolic
5. trauma

31

Congestive splenomegaly is secondary to ___ due to cirrhosis.

portal HTN. May also be caused by anemia.

32

This blood disorder of 'uncontrolled RBC production' causes hyperviscosity, hypercoagulation, and splenomegaly.

polycythemia vera

33

Polycythemia vera causes this kind of splenic condition.

hematologic splenomegaly

34

Leukemia and lymphoma can cause this kind of splenic condition.

infiltrative splenomegaly

35

Sonographically, this appears as a large homogeneous spleen. May contain round focal masses or nodules.

infiltrative splenomegaly

36

Gaucher's disease and Niemann-Pick disease can cause this kind of splenic condition.

metabolic cause

37

Splenomegaly presents with these symptoms...

1. LUQ pain due to the stretching of the capule
2. pressure on adjacent organs

38

Name 4 kinds of splenic cysts.

1. infectious
2. post-traumatic
3. primary congenital
4. intrasplenic pancreatic pseudocyst

39

This splenic condition may be caused by hydatid cysts or echinococcus.

infectious or parasitic cysts

40

Sonographically, this splenic condition can be identified by the calcifications in the cyst wall and the presence of 'daughter cysts'.

infectious cysts

41

What do infectious cysts need to be diagnosed besides history and background info?

percutaneous aspiration

42

This splenic condition is usually due to the outcome of a hematoma due to trauma.

post-traumatic cysts

43

Sonographically, these splenic cysts have no cellular lining.

pseudocysts (post-traumatic cysts)

44

This splenic condition is rare and may be due to polycystic disease.

primary congenital cysts or epidermoid cysts

45

Sonographically, this splenic condition appears as cysts with a cellular lining (that may be calcified) and may contain low level echoes that can be choesterol crystals or debris.

primary congenital cysts

46

This splenic condition is uncommon but is associated with a high mortality rate.

splenic abscess

47

This splenic condition commonly occurs due to spread of infection, esp from infective endocarditis or stretococcus.

splenic abscess

48

Clinically, this splenic condition presents with fever, pain, leukocytosis, and LUQ mass.

splenic abscess

49

Sonographically, this splenic condition appears variable with irregular borders.

splenic abscess

50

This splenic condition is a traumatic abnormality associated with rib fractures.

hematoma

51

This uncommon splenic condition often results from previous granulomatous infections.

solid masses or focal lesions

52

Sonographically, this splenic condition appears as focal, bright, echogenic lesions with or without shadowing.

solid masses or focal lesions

53

The most common causes of granulomatous infection are...

histoplasmosis and tuberculosis

54

Primary malignancies of the spleen are ___.

extremely rare

55

This is the most common cause of splenic metastases.

malignant melanoma (followed by breast and lung cancer)

56

This is the most common benign neoplasm of the spleen.

hemangiomas

57

Sonographically, this splenic condition appears as an isolated but variable neoplasm, much like it does in the liver.

hemangiomas

58

This is a common cause of focal splenic lesions.

infarctions

59

Sonographically, this splenic condition appears as a peripheral, wedge-shaped lesion.

infarctions

60

T/F? Splenic infarctions are hypoechoic.

FALSE, they'll be hypoechoic when acute and hyperechoic when chronic.

61

This splenic condition is commonly caused by bacterial endocarditis.

infarcts

62

Splenic nodules can be caused by...

Gaucher's disease
Schistosomiasis
Candidiasis

63

This occurs with splenic trauma in which the capsule remains intact.

subcapsular or intraparenchymal hematoma

64

Sonographically, this splenic condition appears as a cresent shaped fluid collection inferior to the diaphragm.

subcapsular hematoma

65

This occurs with splenic trauma in which the capsule ruptures.

perisplenic or intraperitoneal hematoma

66

T/F? An enlarged spleen may rupture spontaneously.

true

67

Clinically, this splenic condition presents as abd pain and tenderness. The patient may become lightheaded, confused, faint, or have blurred vision.

splenic rupture

68

T/F? If the splenic vessels tear, death can occur within minutes.

true

69

What is Kehr's sign?

Referred pain in the shoulder's tip from the collected splenic blood irritating the diaphragm.

70

A ruptured spleen is typically caused by...

a blow to the LUQ or the left lower chest.

71

This is the most significant complication of mononucleosis.

ruptured spleen

72

Sonographically, this splenic condition appears as fluid in the lesser and greater sacs on both side of the gastrosplenic ligament. 'butterfly sign'

ruptured spleen

73

This is the autotransplantation of splenic tissue following splenic injury.

splenosis

74

This condition results when splenic cells implant throughout the peritoneal cavity following a rupture.

ectopic spleens

75

This is the most common splenic u/s finding in patients with AIDs.

moderate splenomegaly, seen in 50-70% of patients

76

Focal lesions on the spleen may cause opportunistic infections like...

1. candida
2. pneumocystis carnii
3. mycobacterium avium
4. Kaposi's sarcoma
5. lymphoma

77

This may be confused with enlarged lymhnodes around the spleen or with masses in the pancreas tail.

accessory spleen or splenunculi

78

What percentage of people have an accessroy spleen?

25%

79

T/F? An accessory spleen has an echogenicty identical to the spleen.

true

80

This is an abnormal inferior displacement of the spleen.

splenic ptosis

81

This splenic condition can be due to extreme weight loss, weak abdominal muscles and splenomegaly which would cause the ligaments to become dysfunctional.

splenic ptosis

82

A wandering spleen is when...

the spleen in found lower in the abdominal cavity.

83

A wandering spleen may be inclined to...

torsion.

84

This describes an absent or underdeveloped spleen.

asplenia

85

This term literally means multiple spleens.

polysplenia