Flashcards in Abdominal Vasculature Deck (15):
What are the three different types of aortic aneurysms?
- True aneurysms
- False aneurysms (Pseudoaneurysms)
- Dissecting aneurysms
What is a Berry aneurysm?
small saccular aneurysm commonly located in the cerebrum
What is a Mycotic aneurysm?
What is a Atherosclerotic aneurysm?
weakening of the media in severe atherosclerosis
What is a fusiform aneurysm?
spindle-shaped dilatation in which the stretching process affects the entire circumference of the artery
What is a Saccular aneurysm?
localized spherical outpouching of the vessel wall
What is a True aneurysm?
- involve all three layers of the aorta
- most common cause for AAA is arteriosclerotic disease
- Fusiform and rarely Saccular
- Most AAA are Infrarenal
What is a False aneurysm?
Injury to the vessel wall and extravasated blood is walled off by surrounding tissues
- Can mimic true AAA
- Most common cause of false aneurysm is Trauma
- Bidirectional waveform seen at the stalk
What is a Dissecting aneurysm?
Originate at the aortic arch in the thorax
- separation of the intima from the media of the aortic wall
- can extend into carotid arteries or down aorta to femoral arteries
- Most common: Iatrogenic cardiac intervention
What is a Endovascular Stent Graft?
- alternative to open abdominal surgical repair of AAA
- graft is inserted through groin and deplored within aorta
What is Mesenteric Ischemia?
- chronic mesenteric ischemia, rare, recurring postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss
- chronic not present until at least two of the three major mesenteric arteries are occluded or highly stenosed
What are the velocities for the Celiac axis and SMA in Mesenteric Ischemia?
SMA velocity > 275 cm/sec
CA velocity > 200 cm/sec
What is Celiac Axis Compression Syndrome?
- AKA arcuate ligament compression syndrome
- compression of proximal celiac axis by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm
- Expiration: median ligament compresses the ventral aspect of the celiac axis producing "S" shaped celiac axis and stenosis
- Inspiration: Celiac axis straightens and stenosis disappears and elevated systolic velocities decrease to normal values
What are Arteriovenous Shunts?
- shunt or fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein
- Associated: angiographic punctures of the common femoral artery just inferior to groin