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Flashcards in Spleen Deck (28):
1

What type of organ is the spleen?

Peritoneal organ
- located in LUQ between stomach and diaphragm

2

What is the average size of the spleen?

12 cm long
8 cm trans
4 cm thick

3

What measurement is considered splenomegaly?

> 12 cm

4

What other organs are located on the visceral layer of the spleen?

- stomach
- left kidney
- pancreas
- splenic flexure of colon

5

What is medial and anterior to the spleen?

- pancreatic tail
- fundus of stomach
- lesser sac

6

What is inferior and medial to the spleen?

:Left kidney

7

Where can a accessory spleen be found?

- normal congenital variant
- located near the splenic hilum and same echogenicity of the spleen

8

How does someone get a splenic calcification?

Granulomas are focal lesions resulting from previous infections

9

What are the most common causes of granulomas?

Histoplasmosis and Tuberculosis

10

What is a Epidermoid cyst?

Spleen are true cysts lines with squamous epithelium
- average about 10 cm in size
- wall may be calcified

11

What is a Pancreatic Pseudocyst?

Erode into the spleen due to proximity

12

What is a benign splenic tumor?

Hemangiomas is most common

13

Know about malignant splenic tumors...

- uncommon
- mets to spleen followed by breast and lung cancer
- commonly hypoechoic

14

What is a splenic infarct?

- common in patients with bacterial endocarditis and splenic artery aneurysms
- ** wedge shape hypoechoic lesion

15

Know about splenic abscess...

- result of sepsis due to endocarditis, dental infections or urosepsis

16

Know about Sickle Cell Disease...

- spleen begins to be enlarged and remains enlarged due to splenic sequestration (sickle cell pooling) and repeated infarction. Over time, spleen becomes fibrotic and shrinks (autosplenectomy)

17

What are some most common reasons for splenomegaly?

Congestive : Portal Hypertension and Splenic vein Thrombus

18

When the spleen enlarges, in what ways does it extend?

- anterior
- medial
- inferior

19

What is Polycythemia Vera?

Blood disorder resulting in uncontrolled RBC production causing hyperviscosity and hypercoagulation

20

What may Polycythemia be the cause of?

- Splenomegaly
- Budd-Chiari
- Portal Vein Thrombus
- Splenic Infarcts

21

What is Heterotaxia (Situs Ambiguous) (Polysplenia / Asplenia)?

right / left transposition of the thoracic or abdominal organs
- due to early embryological disturbances that occur prior to the 6th week gestation

22

What is Polysplenia?

- left side predominance
-Multiple LUQ spleens

23

What is Asplenia?

Absent spleen
- reversed positions of the aorta and IVC

24

Know about splenic trauma...

- subcapsular or intraparenchymal hematomas results when splenic capsule remains intact

25

What is a perisplenic or intraperitoneal hematoma?

capsule ruptures.
After rupture, fluid is typically demonstrated to be loculated around the spleen

26

What is a Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST)?

- utilized in the emergency department to document the presence of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity
- appearance of intraperitoneal blood depends on the age, amount and physical state of clot

27

What can a low Hematocrit show?

Blood spillage outside circulatory system

28

What is a Ectopic spleen?

- history of splenic rupture or surgery, splenic cells may implant throughout the peritoneal cavity
- occurrence is called Posttraumatic Splenosis