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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Tract Deck (19):
1

What is the normal measurement of the bowel wall?

3 to 5 mm

2

What are the layers of the bowel?

- mucosa
- submucosa
- muscularis externa
- adventitia or serosa

3

What kind of sign do intestinal pathology create?

- "gut signature"
- "target" or "pseudokidney" sign

4

What is the Gastroesophageal Junction?

segment of esophagus between the diaphragm and the stomach
- seen posterior to left lobe liver

5

What is Pneumoperitoneum?

- Air within the peritoneal cavity
- most common: Perforated Ulcer
- Patient supine, air will float anteriorly

6

Know about Acute Appendicitis...

- most common cause of acute abdominal pain
- Location: anterior to iliacs, posterior to terminal ileum

7

What is McBurney's point?

RLQ location between umbilicus and the iliac crest

8

What is appendicitis caused by?

Obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by a fecalith or hyperplasia of the submucosa

9

What are the criteria for diagnosing appendicitis?

1. Non-compressible appendix
2. > 6 mm diameter
3. appendicolith (fecalith)
4. Increased color flow

10

What is hypertrophic pyloric stenosis?

causes a functional gastric outlet obstruction as a result of hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the muscular layers of the pyloris

11

What is the typical age group for pyloric stenosis?

- 3 to 8 weeks of age
- Signs: Vomiting, Palpable olive-shaped pyloris. visible peristalsis

12

What are the sizes for a pyloric stenosis?

Muscle thickness: > 3 mm (3-4 mm)
Channel length: > 17 mm ( 14 to 24 mm)
Cross section diameter: > 15 mm

13

What is the most accurate measurement for a pyloric stenosis?

- muscle wall thickness

14

What is diverticulitis?

- inflammation of the diverticulum
- most occur in Sigmoid colon
- thick bladder wall ( > 4 mm)
- abscess formation

15

What is the most common reason for bowel obstruction?

Extrinsic (adhesions, hernia)

16

What might we see with bowel obstruction?

- loops of distended bowel, level of obstruction, and peristalsis

17

Know about Intussuseption?

- 6 months- 4 years of age
- ileocolic intussuseption in which ileum invaginates into the proximal colon
- color perfusion on color imaging may indicate bowel ischemia

18

What is the most common clinical presentation of Intussuseption?

Bloody Diarrhea (Currant jelly)

19

What is a classic sign of Intussuseption?

- sausage shaped mass in right hypochondrium
-appear as pseudokidney or target