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Flashcards in Prostate Deck (18):
1

What kind of organ is the prostate?

Retroperitoneum

2

What borders the prostate?

- anteriorly by the pubic bone
- posteriorly by the rectum
- superiorly by the bladder
- inferiorly by the urogenital diaphragm

3

What is the vasculature of the prostate?

Inferior vesical artery with branches from the internal iliac artery

4

What is the Peripheral Zone of the prostate?

posteriorly located portion of the prostate containing 70% of the prostatic glandular tissue.
** Location of most cancers

5

What is the Central zone of the prostate?

superiorly located portion of the prostate containing 25% of the tissue.
- Ejaculatory ducts pass through this zone from seminal to urethra

6

What is the Transitional zone of the prostate?

contains 5% of the tissue.
*** site of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

7

What is the Fibromuscular zone of the prostate?

anteriorly located nonglandular portion of prostate
** not affected by cancer, prostatitis, hyperplasia

8

What kind of grading system do we use for prostate cancers?

Gleason Grading System
- higher the score, cancers more aggressive and worse prognosis

9

What lab increases with age and prostate volume?

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

10

What will cause an elevation in PSA?

- prostate cancer
- BPH
- Prostatitis

11

What is considered normal for PSA?

< 4 ng/ml : Normal
4 - 10 ng/ml : Benign / potential malignancy
> 10 ng/ml : Cancer most likely

12

What is the appearance of the prostate?

- cancer will most likely appear as hypoechoic, peripherally- oriented lesion
- larger the lesion, higher the PSA

13

What is a Transrectal Ultrasound?

- TRUS
- introduction of PSA screening, TRUS aid for needle biopsy

14

What is a lesion directed biopsy?

biopsy based on a sonographic lesion infrequently used due to its poor detection rate

15

What is a Systematic Sextant Biopsy?

taking biopsies 3 on right and 3 on left that detection rate was superior to lesion-directed method

16

What is a parasagittal sextant biopsy?

additional biopsy cores in lateral aspects of the peripheral zone

17

What is the prostate staging?

1. nonpalpable
2. palpable nodule confined to prostate
3. palp nodule extending through capsule
4. metastasis

18

What is Benign Prostate Hyperplasia?

- BPH
- enlargement of the transitional zone of the prostate
- Symptoms: Difficult urination, urinating frequent, small stream