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Flashcards in ABGs Deck (5)
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1

Mnemonic for ABGs

ROME

Respiratory = pH and CO2/HCO3 are Opposite
(All increase/decrease together)

Metabolic = pH and CO2/HCO3 are Equal
(pH increases as CO2/HCO3 decreases and vice versa)

2

Causes for Respiratory Alkalosis

anxiety leading to hyperventilation
pulmonary embolism
salicylate poisoning*
CNS disorders: stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, encephalitis
altitude
pregnancy

3

Causes for Respiratory Acidosis

COPD
decompensation in other respiratory conditions e.g. life-threatening asthma / pulmonary oedema
sedative drugs: benzodiazepines, opiate overdose

4

Causes for Metabolic Alkalosis

vomiting / aspiration (e.g. peptic ulcer leading to pyloric stenos, nasogastric suction)
diuretics
liquorice, carbenoxolone
hypokalaemia
primary hyperaldosteronism
Cushing's syndrome
Bartter's syndrome
congenital adrenal hyperplasia

5

Causes for Metabolic Acidosis

Chloride <10-18>

Normal anion gap ( = hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis)
- gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss: diarrhoea, -
- ureterosigmoidostomy, fistula
- renal tubular acidosis
- drugs: e.g. acetazolamide
- ammonium chloride injection
- Addison's disease

Raised anion gap
- lactate: shock, hypoxia
- ketones: diabetic ketoacidosis, alcohol
- urate: renal failure
- acid poisoning: salicylates, methanol