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Flashcards in Abnormals For Final Exam Deck (48)
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1

Barrel Chest

Equal Anterior to transverse diameter and the ribs are horizontal instead of the normal downward slope.

Associated with normal aging and also with chronic asthma and emphysema as a result of hyper inflation of the lungs

2

Pectus Excavatum

A sunken in sternum from the 2nd intercostal space to the junction of the xyphoid.

Is congenital. Can cause negative self concept.

3

Pectus Carinatum

A forward protrusion of the sternum with the ribs sloping back on either side.

4

Scoliosis

S shaped curvature in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Causes uneven shoulder and scapular height as well as unequal hip levels.

5

Kyphosis

A posterior curve of the thoracic spine (humpback) that causes pain and limited mobility.

Associated with aging. Tincher said found in teens as well.

6

Sigh

Occasional Sighs punctuate the normal breathing pattern and are purposeful to expand the alveoli. Frequent sighs my indicate emotional disfunction and can also lead to hypoventilation and dizziness

7

Tachypnea

Rapid shallow breathing. Increased rate greater than 24 per min.

Normal response to fever, fear, or exercise.

Rate can also increase with Pneumonia, alkalosis, pleurisy, and lesions in the pons.

8

Bradypnea

Slow breathing. A decreased but regular rate of less than 10 per min.

Can be caused by drug induced depression of the respiratory center in the medulla, increased intracranial pressure, and diabetic coma.

9

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

A cycle of respirations the gradually wax and wane in the regular pattern increasing the rate and depth and then decreasing. The breathing periods last from 30-45 seconds and then have periods of apnea for 20 seconds.

The most common cause is severe heart failure. Other causes are renal failure, meningitis, drug overdose, and increased intracranial pressure.

Occurs normally in infants and older adults during sleep.

10

Hyperventilation

Increase in both rate and depth. Normally occurs with extreme exertion or anxiety.

Occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis (kussmal respirations) hepatic coma.

Blows of C02 causing a decreased level in the blood.

11

Hypoventilation

An irregular shallow pattern caused by an overdose of narcotics or anesthetics. May happen with prolonged bed rest. Keeps in C02.

12

Chronic Obstructive Breathing

Person does not have time to fully expire. Causes air trapping... Due to increased airway resistance from chronic obstructive airway diseases.

13

Crackles

fine high pitched

14

Rhonchi

Coarse low pitched

15

Wheeze

whistling high pitched

16

Atelectasis

Collapsed lung.

17

Lobar Pneumonia

Infection that affects the alveoli by leaving them porous so that blood passes in and fills up lungs.

Produces crackles

18

Bronchitis

Effects the Broncholes.

Proliferation of the mucous glands in the passage ways resulting in excessive mucous secretions…causes inflammation and obstruction of the bronchi.

can be acute or chronic (chronic caused by smoking, cough greater than 2 years)

usually has productive cough

Can have crackles or wheeze

19

Emphysema

Stretched out alveoli (soggy boggy) loss of elastin and collagen caused by smoking

may have wheeze

20

Asthma

Bronchiole Spasm.

Hypersensitivity to pollen or irritants.

Increased airway resistance especially on expiration. Produces wheezes bilaterally

21

Pleural Effusion

Can be caused by cancers.

Is excess fluid in the intrapleural space with compression of overlying lung tissue.

Causes the leather sound. (rub, scratchy high pitched)

22

Heart Failure and lung sounds

Pump failure with increasing pressure of cardiac overload causes pulmonary congestion and increase amount of blood present in the pulmonary capillaries. Alveoli are deflated. Pulmonary capillaries are engorged. Bronchial mucosa may be swollen.

Produces crackles at the lung bases, and shortness of breath,

23

Pneumothorax

Caused by accident or trauma. Free air in the pleural space causes partial or full lung collapse.

24

Pulmonary Embolism

Starts in the legs, detaches and travels through the venous system to the lungs and lodges. (blood clot in the lungs)

Causes crackles, wheezes, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and hypotension.

25

Weak thready pulse

+1 hard to palpate, fades in and out

associated with decreased cardiac output, peripheral arteriole disease, and aortic valve stenosis

26

Full bounding pulse

+3 easy to palpate, pounds under your fingertips

associated with hyperkinetic states (exercise, fever, anxiety) anemia and hyperthyroidism

27

Raynaud's Phenomenon

Episodes of abrupt, progressive tricolor changes in the fingers in response to cold, vibration, or stress: 1. White from arteriospasm and resulting from deficit in supply 2. cyanosis from lack of bloodflow then 3. rubor from return of blood.

28

Lymphedema

is a high protein swelling of a limb most commonly due to breast cancer treatment.

29

Chronic arteriole symptoms

deep muscle pain, usually in calf, but may be in lower leg or dorsum of the foot.

feels like cramp

relieved with rest

at risk- people that smoke, have hypertension, diabetes, obesity

30

Chronic Venous Symptoms

found in calf and lower leg

aching, tiredness, feeling of fullness from prolonged standing and sitting

not relieved by rest

at risk- obesity, standing or sitting at work, pregnancy, heart failure