Flashcards in Accreditation of Training Deck (29):
INPO sees the systematic approach to training process as a method that provides what to personnel?
The SAT approach provides personnel with the necessary knowledge and skills before job performance, including the ability to perform technical tasks, to meet expectations for high levels of human performance and proficiency, and to make effective decisions that take into consideration nuclear plant safety.
What are the three objective of the accreditation process?
Objective 1: Foundation of Training, covers the analysis, design and development phases as well as infrastructure and facilities for training.
Objective 2: Implementation of Training, covers the implementation phase of training.
Objective 3: Evaluation of Training Program Effectiveness, covers the evaluation phase of training.
What fundamental behaviors have been shown to ensure success in maintaining accreditation training program health?
Senior station leaders are champions for training.
Line leaders own their training programs.
Training leaders are the conscience for training.
Is it necessary to meet all supporting criteria of an objective?
No. If an objective is fully met (professional judgment) then it is not necessary that all supporting criteria be met.
What is the definition of Objective 1: Foundation of Training?
Line and training personnel partner to ensure programs used to train and qualify workers are founded on a systematic process and are supported by the resources needed to develop and sustain training programs to meet station needs.
Criteria 1.1 of the Foundation of Training states: A systematic approach to training is defined by implementing policies and procedures that provide the flexibility of training processes and methods commensurate with the complexity of the job and with its importance to nuclear safety and reliability. What does this mean?
1. There to ensure stations have and follow procedures through the 5 phases of the SAT process (ADDIE).
2. The extent of application of the SAT process is based on the importance of the job to personnel and nuclear safety, to equipment reliability, and to the complexity of the job performance requirements.
3. Some level of documentation on how ADDIE decisions are made assists station personnel in evaluating the same task in the future with an understanding of the basis for the original decisions.
Criteria 1.2 of the Foundation of Training states: Strategic, tactical and reactive training needs are identified, with training delivered in time to support plant activities. What does this mean?
1. Strategically, long-term staffing requirements, major projects/initiatives are factored into training schedules/resources.
2. Tactically, training is appropriately used to support planned and emergent evolutions - just-in-time training.
3. Reactive, training is appropriately used to industry events AND plant events.
Criteria 1.3 of the Foundation of Training states: Training program content is based on an analysis of job performance requirements and station standards and considers entry-level requirements, industry guidance, operating experience, performance improvement, regulatory requirements, and the need for refreshing job-related knowledge and skills. What does this mean?
Initial Training is based on an analysis of job performance requirements and standards, entry-level requirements, industry guidance and regulatory requirements.
Continuing Training is based on an analysis of training needs for refreshing knowledge and job-related skills, for personnel performance improvements, for new and modified performance requirements and standards and for regulatory requirements.
Industry guidance and regulatory requirements mean what?
In relation to the accredited training programs, industry guidance refers primarily to Academy documents (ACAD). Additionally, industry guidance and regulatory requirements refer to pertinent program guidance or to requirements from NUREGs, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and similar documents.
Is operating experience required to be developed into every lesson plan?
No, Criteria 1.3 is not intended to mandate or require OE in every lesson. It is intended that staff appropriately use OE to enhance and compliment the subject matter presented.
Training is a powerful tool to drive station performance. How is the effectiveness of training for performance improvement measured?
It is not required by Criteria 1.3, however a method of measurement should be considered.
How is refreshing knowledge and job related skills tracked?
A long-range training plan is developed with periodicity established for skills and knowledge that need refresher training. Deviations from the long-range training plan should be understood, analyzed and appropriately documented.
Criteria 1.4 of the Foundation of Training states: Changes that affect training and qualification, such as job scope, plant design, equipment, procedures, operating experience and regulatory requirements, are evaluated and incorporated into the initial and continuing training programs. What does this mean?
Changes that affect the performance of a task are analyzed and documented for the impact on associated training program content.
Additionally, the training of currently qualified program incumbents is evaluated to determine the impact of changes to their qualifications and to additional training and/or evaluation as appropriate.
Criteria 1.5 of the Foundation of Training states: Learning objectives and instructional settings derived from analyses provide the basis for training and evaluation. What does this mean?
The products of job and task analyses are used to specify required worker knowledge and skills as well as to validate instructional settings. It also results in the development of test items and job performance measures, the development and sequence of learning objectives, and the development of training and qualification program descriptions.
Criteria 1.6 of the Foundation of Training states: Training materials and evaluation instruments are developed using learning objectives derived from plant procedures, references, tools, equipment, and conditions of task performance that reflect actual job conditions and station standards to the extent practicable. What does this mean?
Addresses development phase of SAT - "train like we work, work like we train."
Materials include the minimum content necessary to obtain mastery of the learning objective.
Criteria 1.7 of the Foundation of Training states: Resources (staff, facilities, equipment and materials) effectively support training activities and provide a professional learning environment. What does this mean?
Station resources are sufficient to produce and maintain well-qualified, competent personnel to operate, maintain and improve station performance safely and reliably.
Training staff facilities are conducive to the development of quality instructional material and instructor preparation.
Criteria 1.8 of the Foundation of Training states: Instructors and evaluators possess the knowledge and skills to fulfill their assigned duties. What does this mean?
Personnel providing on-the-job training, task performance evaluation and mentoring are selected and qualified to perform those activities in a high quality manner to ensure knowledge transfer.
Training organization personnel are technically qualified and capable of providing high quality instruction.
Criteria 1.9 of the Foundation of Training states: Configuration control for simulator hardware and software results in the simulator representing the operating characteristics of plant components and systems. What does this mean?
The simulator is maintained in an appropriate condition to replicate the operating conditions of the reference plant properly as required by the appropriate regulatory documents. 10 CR 55.46
Criteria 1.10 of the Foundation of Training states: Records are maintained to document personnel qualifications for job assignments. Training program documentation supports management information needs. What does this mean?
Say what you do, document what you do.
Criteria 2.1 of Implementation of Training and Trainee Evaluation states: Training is presented in a sequence and in settings that facilitate learning and trainee achievement of learning objectives. What does this mean?
Organizing and sequencing ensures that training is timely and assists trainees in transitions from one skill/knowledge level to another by building on pre-existing knowledge.
Instructional setting (classroom, lab, simulator, OJT, self-study) is selected based on the type of learning involved and the level of knowledge and skill required.
Criteria 2.2 of Implementation of Training and Trainee Evaluation states: Training is conducted using approved training materials based on knowledge and skills needed for the job. What does this mean?
Instructional aids such as lesson plans, scenario guides and laboratory guides promoted consistency in training by specifying the method of instruction, learning objectives, subject matter to be covered, schedule and sequence of instruction, and, if appropriate, evaluation methods and standards.
Instructional materials should contain sufficient content and instructional cues to ensure a qualified instructor with technical knowledge on the subject adequately delivers the objectives and supporting materials. Based on experience, the instructor may provide additional information.
Criteria 2.3 of Implementation of Training and Trainee Evaluation states: Achievement of learning objectives is evaluated using reliable and valid test methods. Examinations are controlled and administered to maintain evaluation integrity and to prevent compromise. What does this mean?
A process is employed to ensure exam security.
Selection of the type of evaluation to be used, the content of the evaluation instrument, and the standard of acceptable performance of the learning objectives are derived from job performance requirements.
Criteria 2.4 of Implementation of Training and Trainee Evaluation states: Evaluation methods identify personnel who are prepared to perform independently at the level the line organization expects. When remediation is required, it ensures performance at the expected levels. What does this mean?
Line management approval is required before an individual is qualified to perform work independently.
Individual performance deficiencies identified in the training environment should be reviewed to determine any impact on current qualifications.
The need for recurring remediation should be reviewed for long-term impact on qualification.
Criteria 2.5 of Implementation of Training and Trainee Evaluation states: Personnel, including supplemental and non-plant personnel, satisfy established training and qualification requirements in support of working independently. What does this mean?
Work independently = must be qualified on that task.
Supplemental and non-plant personnel requiring continuing training are identified.
Qualification records are part of training. Qual checks are part of plant evaluation process.
Criteria 2.6 of Implementation of Training and Trainee Evaluation states: Exemptions from station training requirements include review of previous training, experience and qualification. What does this mean?
Qualification would be granted based on the results of training; on successfully completing selected evaluations; and on meeting established experience, knowledge and skill requirements.
Employing personnel who are currently qualified at an institution with an industry-recognized and station-approved training program can simplify the qualification process.
Criteria 3.1 of Evaluation of Training Program Effectiveness states: Self-assessments of training programs are conducted to identify strengths and areas needing improvement. What does this mean?
Criteria is about understanding and correcting identified gaps.
Self assessments include review of training facilities and materials, observations of training activities, interviews, and a review of training program records.
During self-assessments, industry recurring weaknesses and training lessons learned are used.
Criteria 3.2 of Evaluation of Training Program Effectiveness states: Managers are engaged in training activities through monitoring and oversight to provide feedback and direction. What does this mean?
Observation program, which is periodically reviewed for quality and quantity. Managers apply the resources needed to ensure that training is implemented in accordance with their expectations, that it is timely, and that it is appropriately targeted to station needs.
Criteria 3.3 of Evaluation of Training Program Effectiveness states: Performance and feedback during training are used to evaluate and modify training programs. What does this mean?
Engaged trainee response to feedback provides timely and insightful information that can be acted upon to implement immediate program improvements.
Feedback should always be solicited, but not demanded, as experience has shown that feedback coerced from learners provides limited value.
Performance in training is an appropriate way to evaluate learning.