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Flashcards in Acts in U.S. History Deck (50):

Act proposed by Cecilius Calvert (Lord Baltimore) to allow for toleration of both protestants and catholics in Maryland. 1649

act of toleration


act loosening the requirements for church membership in puritan Massachusetts. the act was passed in response to a drop in church attendance amongst second generation puritans. 1662

halfway covenant


act passed by british parliament restricting colonial settlement to land east of the Appalachian mountains. the act was passed in response to clashes with Indians (notably Pontiac's war) as colonists moved west into land acquired from france after the French and indian war. 1763

proclamation of 1763


direct tax placed on the American colonies by british parliament. he act required colonists to purchase stamps for a variety of printed material. the uproar over the act led to the stamp act congress, one of the first organized protests of british taxation policy 1765

stamp act


series of revenue-producing taxes placed on the American colonies by Britain in an attempt to pay for continued occupation of the colonies by british troops. the act taxed items like lead, paint, glass, paper, and tea. 1767

townshend acts


series of four acts designed to punish the city of boston for the damage caused by the boston tea party. the british refer to the acts as the "coercive acts". 1774

intolerable acts


while not intended as such, many American colonists considered this to be one of the intolerable acts. the act est. Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec, and expanded Quebec to include territory that today makes up ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota 1774

Quebec act


passed by the article of confederation congress, this act est. an orderly method for surveying and selling western land of the early u.s. notably, the act divided the land into 6 square mile "townships" that were further subdivided into homesteads. 1785

land ordinance


also passed by the articles of confederation congress, this act est. the method by which new territory could join the union as states 1787

northwest ordinance


a series of acts sponsored by the federalists imposing severe restrictions on alients out of fear of treason. the acts were an attempt to limit the power of Jefferson's democratic-republican party. 1798

alien and sedition acts


essentially forbade us maritime trade with foreign nations. this was signed by Jefferson in order to maintain American neutrality during Napoleonic wars. the embargo was opposed by new England federalists. 1807

embargo act


repealed the embargo act w/ regards to all nations exept france and Britain. 1809

non-intercourse act


also known as the compromise of 1820, it admitted Missouri as a slave state and maine as a free state, thus preserving sectional balance. it also set the southern border of Missouri (36 degrees 30') as the future border between slave and free states. this provision was ruled unconstitutional by the dred scott decision of 1857. 1820

Missouri compromise


also known as the "tariff of abominations", opposition to this act led to the nullification crisis, the resignation of john c. Calhoun as VP, and the writing of the south Carolina exposition and protest. 1828

tariff of 1828


Andrew Jackson's forcible removal of the five civilized tribes from the south (particularly the Cherokee from Georgia). most of the Indians were removed via the trail of tears. the act was a direct response to the 1828 case of Cherokee nation v. Georgia and was later challenged with the 1832 case of Worcester v. Georgia. 1830

indian removal act


series of 5 laws intended to compromise on the issue of slavery in the lands acquired after the Mexican war. California was admitted as a free state, the slave trade was ended in the district of Columbia, and the north agreed to a stricter fugitive slave law. 1850

compromise of 1850


provided for the admission of Kansas and Nebraska with or w/o slavery; essentially repealed the Missouri compromise. 1854

Kansas-Nebraska act


provided for the distribution of western lands to u.s. citizens. homesteaders were given 160 acres of free land in exchange for a pledge to "improve" the land w/in five years. 1862

homestead act


radical reconstruction plan passed by congressional republicans but later vetoed by Lincoln. the plan called for 50% of citizens of reconstructed states to take an ironclad oath swearing that they never supported the confederacy. this was a challenge to Lincoln's more lenient 10% plan. 1864

wade-davis bill


prohibited the president from removing officials properly appointed by the senate. Andrew Jackson violated this by firing secretary of war Edwin Stanton leading to his impeachment. 1868

tenure of office act


required the treasury to monthly, limited purchases of silver for coinage. congress was required to purchase between 2-4 million worth of silver. the act was later replaced by the 1890 Sherman silver purchase act. 1878

bland-Allison act


a reversal of the 1868 Burlingame treaty, this act prohibited the immigration from china. 1882

Chinese exclusion act


provided for the objective appointment of civil service positions on the basis of merit. the Pendleton act was sparked by the assassination of james Garfield by disappointed office seeker Charles guiteau. 1883

Pendleton act


created the interstate commerce commission and forced all railway charges to be fair and reasonable. the act's passage was a response to protests from farmer's groups like the grange. 1887

interstate commerce act


authorized the federal government to dissolve a trust. te act was weak, and was even used to restrict the power of labor unions. it was strengthened by the clayton antitrust act of 1914. 1890

Sherman antitrust act


replaced the bland-Allison act; required the treasury to purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver at market value per month. 1890

Sherman silver purchase act


est. the gov of the newly acquired territory of Puerto rico. the insular cases declared that citizenship was not automatically bestowed upon people in newly acquired territories, and it wasn't until the 1917 jones act that purto Ricans gained us citizenship. 1900

foraker act


forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of "adulterated" or mislabeled foods or drugs in interstate commerce. this was a direct response to upton Sinclair's the jungle. 1906

pure food and drug act


aimed to eliminate the dangerous and unsanitary conditions in meat-packing industry. this was a direct response to upton Sinclair's the jungle. 1906

meat inspection act


strengthened the Sherman anitrust act, was more specific as to what actions constituted a "trust". Samuel gompers called the act the "magna carta of organized labor" because it removed the restrictions on labor unions put into place by the Sherman antitrust act. 1914

clayton antitrust act


provided severe penalties for persons found guilty of aiding the enemy or refusal to serve in the us military. Charles schenck's biolation of this law was the subject of the 1919 case of schenck v. us. 1917

espionage act


provided for the enforcement of the 18th amendment (prohibition). 1919

Volstead act


provided for the payment of adjusted compensation (bonus) to all veterans of WW1. it was payment of this bonus that the bonus army was after when they marched on Washington in 1931. 1924

adjusted compensation act


sharp increase of tariff rates on more than 20,000 imported goods. president hoover thought that this would alleviate the pains of the great depression, but most economists blame the Hawley-smoot tariff with sinking the us deeper into the depression. 1930

Hawley-smoot tariff


an attempt by Herbert hoover to address the problems of the great depression by giving billions of dollars in loans to banks and businesses. the act was criticized because it did not give direct relief to the poor. 1932

reconstruction finance corporation


also known as the "anti-injunction act", it barred federal courts from issuing injunctions to halt labor disputes. the act also outlawed the "yellow-dog contract". 1932

Norris-LaGuardia act


created the national recovery administration (NRA) and the public works administration (PWA). the NIRA was later ruled unconstitutional in the 1935 case of schecter poultry v. us. 1933

national industrial recovery act


created the federal emergency relief administration (FERA) to aid the states through grants. 1933

federal emergency relief act


est. the agricultural adjustment administration (AAA) which paid farmers subsides to farm less land and therefore drive crop prices up. 1933

agricultural adjustment act


created the federal deposit insurance corp (FDIC) for guaranteering individual bank deposits. 1933

glass-steagall act


also known as the national labor relations act, created the national labor relations board (NLRB). 1935

wagner act


enabled any country whose defense is deemed necessary to the nation to acquire arms and other war supplies from the us. this arrangement to help the uk during the battle of Britain followed the earlier "cash and carry" and "destroyers for bases" programs. 1941

lend-lease act


passed over Truman's veto, this act heavily restricted the actions of unions including banning the "closed show" and forbidding union contributions to political campaigns. allowed the federal gov to apply for injunctions to stop strikes. 1947

taft-hartley act


combined all military departments into a single department, defense. james forrestal was the first secretary of defense. 1947

national security act


among other provisions, it outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race religion, or sex. it created the equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC) to investigate the claims of discrimination. 1964

civil rights act


eliminated literacy and other tests as requirements for voting. 1965

voting rights act


(OSHA) mandated that employers provide employment "free from recognized hazards to employees" 1970

occupational safety and health act


set a 60 day limit on the presidential commitment of troops to hostilities abroad w/o congressional approval. passed over Nixon's veto, the act is considered by many to be a reaction to LBJ's actions w/ the gulf of Tonkin resolution. 1973

war powers act


required congress to balance the budget. 1985

Gramm-Rudman-Hollings act


regulates compaign financing. specifically, it targets "soft money" contributions and "issue ads" not financed by a specific candidate. 2002

McCain-Feingold act