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Flashcards in Scientists Timeline Deck (24):

measures the earth's circumference

Eratostenes 240 BC


used a telescope to observe that the moons of Jupiter appear to circle Jupiter. This evidence supports the heliocentric model and weakens the geocentric model of cosmos

Galileo Galilei 1609


author of the Skeptical Chemist, used an air pump to determine the inverse relationship between pressure and the volume of a gas. this relationship came to be known as *name*'s law

Robert Boyle 1660-1662


used a microscope to observe cells which he describes in his book Micrographia

Robert Hooke 1665


the "father of microbiology" discovers microorganisms which he originally named "animalcules"

Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674-1676


made the first quantitative estimate of the speed of light by timing motions of Jupiter's satellite Io with a telescope

Ole Romer 1676


suspends a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery and synthesizes carbonated water. he is better known for discovering dephlogisticated air (oxygen)

Joseph Priestly 1767


determines that oxygen combines with materials upon combustion thus disproving phlogiston theory

Antoine Lavoisier 1783


determines that chemical reactions in a closed container do not alter total mass. from these observations he established the law of conservation of mass

Antoine Lavoisier 1789


tests his hypothesis for the protective action of mild cowpox infection for smallpox, the first vaccine

Edward Jenner 1796


used a torsion bar experiment to measure the density of the earth. he is also known as the discoverer of hydrogen

Henry Cavendish 1798


used the double-slit experiment to demonstrate the wave particle duality of light

Thomas Young 1801


used electrolysis to isolate elements potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium, and chlorine

Humphry Davy (187-1810)


studied reactions among gases and determined that their volumes combine chemically in simple integer ratios

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1809)


discovers the connection of electricity and magnetism by experiments involving a compass and electric circuits. this is later termed electromagnetism

Hans Christian Orsted 1820


studied very small pollen particles in water under the microscope and observes Brownian motion which was later named in his honor

Robert Brown 1827


synthesizes the organic compound urea using inorganic reactants disproving the application of vitalism to chemical processes

Fredric Wohler 1828


measured the rates of effusion for different gases and establishes Graham's law of effusion and diffusion

Thomas Graham 1833


arranged to have trumpets play from a passing train. the ground observed pitch was higher than that played when the train was approaching then lower that as the train passed and moved away demonstrating the *name* Effect

Christian Doppler 1845


*name* pendulum is first exhibited. it demonstrates the Coriolis effect and the rotation of the Earth 1851

Leon Foucault 1851


his experiments with the garden pea led him to surmise many of the fundamental laws of genetics (dominant vs recessive genes, the 1-2-1 ratio, etc). his work is best summarized with the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment

Gregor Mendel 1856-1863


used S-shaped flasks to prevent spores from contaminating broth, disproving the theory of Spontaneous Generation (also known as abiogenesis). This experiment was an extension of the rancid meat experiement of Frencesco Redi

Louis Pasteur 1861


discovered a voltage across a conductor with a transverse applied magnetic field, the *name* Effect

Edwin Hall 1879


saved Joseph Meister after the 9 year old was bitten by a rabid dog. this was the first successful vaccine against rabies

Louis Pasteur 1885