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Flashcards in Scientists Timeline Deck (24):
1

measures the earth's circumference

Eratostenes 240 BC

2

used a telescope to observe that the moons of Jupiter appear to circle Jupiter. This evidence supports the heliocentric model and weakens the geocentric model of cosmos

Galileo Galilei 1609

3

author of the Skeptical Chemist, used an air pump to determine the inverse relationship between pressure and the volume of a gas. this relationship came to be known as *name*'s law

Robert Boyle 1660-1662

4

used a microscope to observe cells which he describes in his book Micrographia

Robert Hooke 1665

5

the "father of microbiology" discovers microorganisms which he originally named "animalcules"

Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674-1676

6

made the first quantitative estimate of the speed of light by timing motions of Jupiter's satellite Io with a telescope

Ole Romer 1676

7

suspends a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery and synthesizes carbonated water. he is better known for discovering dephlogisticated air (oxygen)

Joseph Priestly 1767

8

determines that oxygen combines with materials upon combustion thus disproving phlogiston theory

Antoine Lavoisier 1783

9

determines that chemical reactions in a closed container do not alter total mass. from these observations he established the law of conservation of mass

Antoine Lavoisier 1789

10

tests his hypothesis for the protective action of mild cowpox infection for smallpox, the first vaccine

Edward Jenner 1796

11

used a torsion bar experiment to measure the density of the earth. he is also known as the discoverer of hydrogen

Henry Cavendish 1798

12

used the double-slit experiment to demonstrate the wave particle duality of light

Thomas Young 1801

13

used electrolysis to isolate elements potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium, and chlorine

Humphry Davy (187-1810)

14

studied reactions among gases and determined that their volumes combine chemically in simple integer ratios

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1809)

15

discovers the connection of electricity and magnetism by experiments involving a compass and electric circuits. this is later termed electromagnetism

Hans Christian Orsted 1820

16

studied very small pollen particles in water under the microscope and observes Brownian motion which was later named in his honor

Robert Brown 1827

17

synthesizes the organic compound urea using inorganic reactants disproving the application of vitalism to chemical processes

Fredric Wohler 1828

18

measured the rates of effusion for different gases and establishes Graham's law of effusion and diffusion

Thomas Graham 1833

19

arranged to have trumpets play from a passing train. the ground observed pitch was higher than that played when the train was approaching then lower that as the train passed and moved away demonstrating the *name* Effect

Christian Doppler 1845

20

*name* pendulum is first exhibited. it demonstrates the Coriolis effect and the rotation of the Earth 1851

Leon Foucault 1851

21

his experiments with the garden pea led him to surmise many of the fundamental laws of genetics (dominant vs recessive genes, the 1-2-1 ratio, etc). his work is best summarized with the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment

Gregor Mendel 1856-1863

22

used S-shaped flasks to prevent spores from contaminating broth, disproving the theory of Spontaneous Generation (also known as abiogenesis). This experiment was an extension of the rancid meat experiement of Frencesco Redi

Louis Pasteur 1861

23

discovered a voltage across a conductor with a transverse applied magnetic field, the *name* Effect

Edwin Hall 1879

24

saved Joseph Meister after the 9 year old was bitten by a rabid dog. this was the first successful vaccine against rabies

Louis Pasteur 1885