Flashcards in Acupuncture Deck (9)
What does PENS stand for?
Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
What is the Hz level of LF/HI PENS?
Which is closer to physiological HR?
LF/HI: 2-15 Hz (*closer to physio HR)
HF/LI: 30-200 Hz
What brain areas and NTs are involved in LF/HI PENS?
- Spinal cord: enkaphalin, dynorphin B
- Midbrain: enkephalin, 5-HT, NE
- Pituitary/hypothalamus: B-endorphin, ACTH
- Spinal cord/midbrain: GABA
Naloxone blocks the effects of which type(s) of PENS?
LF/HI (not HF/LI)
Describe the analgesic onset speed and duration of LF/HI PENS. HF/LI?
LF/HI: slow onset, long duration
HF/LI: fast onset, short duration
Are the effects cumulative or LF/HI or HF/LI, or both or neither types of PENS?
Explain the Thermocouple Effect of Kelvin-Thomas.
Describes a gradient along the length of a homogenous conductor with a temperature gradient produced by the ends of the conductor at different temperatures (of which electrons move)
* Conversion of temp to electric voltage
Describe the Benedick's Effect.
- What about the structure of the acupuncture needle allows this to occur?
The current along a uniform conductor is reinforced by the electro-magnetic effect between the second (spiraled) metal of the handle in contact with the first metal of the shaft.
- Stainless steel shaft with a spiraled handle of copper, bronze, or alloy (creates temperature gradient)