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Flashcards in Acupuncture Deck (9)
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1

What does PENS stand for?

Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

2

What is the Hz level of LF/HI PENS?
HF/LI?
Which is closer to physiological HR?

LF/HI: 2-15 Hz (*closer to physio HR)
HF/LI: 30-200 Hz

3

What brain areas and NTs are involved in LF/HI PENS?

HF/LI?

LF/HI:
- Spinal cord: enkaphalin, dynorphin B
- Midbrain: enkephalin, 5-HT, NE
- Pituitary/hypothalamus: B-endorphin, ACTH

HF/LI:
- Spinal cord/midbrain: GABA

4

Naloxone blocks the effects of which type(s) of PENS?

LF/HI (not HF/LI)

5

Describe the analgesic onset speed and duration of LF/HI PENS. HF/LI?

LF/HI: slow onset, long duration
HF/LI: fast onset, short duration

6

Are the effects cumulative or LF/HI or HF/LI, or both or neither types of PENS?

LF/HI only

7

Explain the Thermocouple Effect of Kelvin-Thomas.

Describes a gradient along the length of a homogenous conductor with a temperature gradient produced by the ends of the conductor at different temperatures (of which electrons move)
* Conversion of temp to electric voltage

8

Describe the Benedick's Effect.
- What about the structure of the acupuncture needle allows this to occur?

The current along a uniform conductor is reinforced by the electro-magnetic effect between the second (spiraled) metal of the handle in contact with the first metal of the shaft.
- Stainless steel shaft with a spiraled handle of copper, bronze, or alloy (creates temperature gradient)

9

Name the NIH Consensus Panel's recommended uses for acupuncture.

- *Addiction
- *Stroke rehabilitation
- Headache
- Menstrual cramps
- Tennis elbow
- Fibromyalgia
- Myofascial pain
- *Osteoarthritis
- Low back pain
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- *Asthma