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Flashcards in Herbals Deck (22):
1

What populations can benefit from taking vitamin A supplements, besides in deficiency?

None

2

What populations can benefit from taking vitamin D supplements, besides in deficiency?

Older adults/Institutionalized
Exposure to limited sunlight
Dark skinned individuals
Obese Individuals
Individuals with GI disorders

3

What populations can benefit from taking vitamin E supplements, besides in deficiency?

None

4

What populations can benefit from taking vitamin K supplements, besides in deficiency?

All newborns given IM vitamin K @ birth to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

5

What populations can benefit from taking vitamin C supplements, besides in deficiency?

None

6

What populations can benefit from taking vitamin B1 (thiamine) supplements, besides in deficiency?

Chronic alcoholics: Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (Vision changes/ataxia/memory loss)
~20% Fatal if untreated

7

What populations can benefit from taking vitamin B12 (cobalamin) supplements, besides in deficiency?

The elderly (poor absorption)
Vegans & Vegetarians
Alcoholics
Pernicious anemia
GI malabsorption disorders

8

What populations can benefit from taking vitamin B9 (folate) supplements, besides in deficiency?

Women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects

9

Is melatonin proven effective for insomnia/jet lag or changing sleep patterns?
For cognitive impairment?

+/-
No

10

What meds should melatonin not be combined with?

Anti-seizure meds or warfarin

11

Is glucosamine/chondroitin proven effective for OA?

No

12

What are fish oils proven effective for?

Decrease CVD, BP, HR
Decrease CHD death
Decrease sudden cardiac death

13

Is co-enzyme Q proven effective for heart conditions, CHF/Angina, HTN/diabetes, or migraines?

No, only useful in very rare genetic CoQ deficiency.

14

Bitter Orange (ephedra replacement):
Common uses?

Adverse effects?

Major drug interactions?

Nausea, constipation, weight loss

^HR, ^BP. Stroke, MI (esp. w/caffeine)

MAOI (contains tyramine metabolites), inhibits gut 3A4

15

Ephedra (banned in US):
Common uses?

Adverse effects?

Major drug interactions?

Colds/fever/flu, weight loss

^ risk CVD, stroke. Death.

Additive effect w/stimulants

16

Ginger:
Common uses?

Clinical trial evidence?

Adverse effects?

Major drug interactions?

GI upsets/nausea, CVD/Inflammation, RA

Yes: for nausea

^ risk of bleeding

Anticoagulants

17

Hawthorn:
Common uses?

Clinical trial evidence?

Adverse effects?

Major drug interactions?

Heart disease, CHF/HTN, angina

YES: mild heart failure

None

Digoxin/Nitrates, BP meds

18

Horse chestnut:
Common uses?

Clinical trial evidence?

Adverse effects?

Major drug interactions?

Chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins, hemorrhoids

Yes!

Raw seed contains poisonous esculin toxin, which may exacerbate kidney disease

Anticoagulants

19

Kava:
Common uses?

Clinical trial evidence?

Adverse effects?

Major drug interactions?

Insomnia, anxiety, depression, ADHD

YES

Liver damage (potentially serious), muscle spasms

Additive effect w/sedatives. ^ acetaminophen toxicity

20

St. John's Wort:
Common uses?

Clinical trial evidence?

Adverse effects?

Major drug interactions?

Depression/anxiety, sleep disorders, heart palpitations, wound healing, chronic fatigue, migraine

YES

Photosensitization
SEROTONIN SYNDROME [with SSRI, MAOI, TCA etc]
May induce mania in bipolar, depressed/psychotic
Potential for birth defects

Antidepressants
Increased expression 3A4/2C19:
Decreased OCT, cyclosporin, statins, HIV PI, and more

21

Thunder God Vine: (not on list)
Common uses?

Clinical trial evidence?

Adverse effects?

RA, obesity

Yes

Yes

22

Supplements that are contraindicated w/anticoagulants? (4)

Ginger
Horse Chestnut
Melatonin (warfarin)
Vitamin K