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Flashcards in Test 3 SHUFFLED Deck (275)
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1

Name the 3 major side effects a/w vancomycin.

- Red man syndrome - Nephrotoxicity - Ototoxicity

2

Metronidazole is mainly used against what class of microbe?

Anaerobes

3

What is the name of the carboxypenicillin?

Ticarcillin (not avail.)

4

Which AGs are effective against mycobacterial infections?

- Amikacin - Streptomycin

5

What is unique about the pharmacology of linezolid?

100% bioavailable

6

Which gens of cephalosporins are used for surgical prophylaxis?

1st and 2nd (2nd for more intense surgeries?)

7

How are macrolides used to treat MAC (mycobacterium avium complex)? I hope to god this doesn't come up

- Azithromycin for prophylaxis - Clarithromycin/ Azithromycin for tx

8

How is clindamycin administrated? What is the % absorption?

IV, PO (90% absorption, can switch b/w IV and PO)

9

What are the clinical uses of clindamycin?

- Anaerobic Infections OUTSIDE of the CNS: Pulmonary, intraabdominal, pelvic, diabetic foot and decubitus ulcer infections - Skin & Soft Tissue Infections: Good option for PCN-allergic patients and infections due to CA-MRSA - Alternative therapy: C. perfringens, PCP, Toxoplasmosis, malaria, bacterial vaginosis

10

What is the target organism for cipro and levo when targeting gram-negative aerobes?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NOT moxi)

11

What is another name for Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX)? - How is the spectrum of activity/resistance affected when the drugs are combined?

Bactrim - Broader spectrum, decreased resistance

12

*Name the main target organisms of natural penicillins.

- Penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae - infections due to other streptococci - Neisseria meningitidis - Syphilis - Clostridium perfringens + tetani

13

Which FQ has good CSF penetration?

Moxifloxacin

14

How does the activity of tobramycin differ from gentamycin?

Slightly weaker gram-neg activity but more effective against pseudomonas.

15

Explain the target organisms (only) of the broad-spectrum antibiotic TMP-SMX (Bactrim).

gram-pos: *staph aureus (MRSA, CA-MRSA) Gram-neg: - Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Other: - Pneumocystis carinii. Plus many more (broad spectrum)

16

What are the relative levels of activity for the 3 macrolides against gram-negative aerobes?

ACE Azithro > Clarithro > Erythro (CEA for gram-pos)

17

What bacterium do macrolides importantly NOT have activity against?

Enterobacteriacea (gram-neg aerobe class)

18

What are the 3 macrolides we should know?

- Azithromycin - Clarithromycin - Erythromycin

19

What group of organisms is vancomycin capable of killing? (name the class and the 5 major targets)

Gram-pos ONLY - *MRSA, *MSSA, *coag-negative staph, *PRSP, *c-dif (clostridium spp.) - Also targets other strep pneumoniae, viridians strep, group strep, enterococcus, corynebacterium, bacillus, listeria, actinomyces, clostridium spp., peptococcus, peptostreptococcus.

20

What 2 drugs are contained in Timentin?

Ticarcillin-clavulanate

21

Which FQ(s) are useful against sinusitis/bronchitis?

All

22

Which of the 4 penicillinase-resistant penicillins can be given orally?

Dicloxacillin

23

What are the 3 key concepts to consider regarding infection when considering antibiotic tx?

- Severity - Site - Organism

24

Does tigecyclin have a more or less broad spectrum of activity vs. tetracyclins? Which organism is tigecyline notably not active against?

- Broader * Pseudomonas

25

Name the 3 most important AGs. Which is a 4th that is less important?

- Gentamycin (gent) - Tobramycin (tobr) - Amikacin (amik) Streptomycin

26

What are some factors that influence PAE? (4, not too important)

- Organism - Drug concentration - Duration of drug exposure - Antimicrobial combinations

27

*What is the major adverse effect a/w daptomycin?

Myopathy and CPK elevation (must continually monitor them)

28

Distinguish the characteristics of the 5 types of E. coli.

o Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC): Profuse watery diarrhea (Traveler’s diarrhea) o Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC): infants; diarrhea w/mucus but no gross blood o Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC): blood, mucus, and many leukocytes in stool o Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC): Bloody diarrhea w/o pyuria. May progress to HUS. ♣ Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) via E. coli O157:H7 o Enteroaggressive E. coli (EAggEC): Watery diarrhea w/blood and mucus

29

Although tetracyclines are cross-reactive, ____________ is resistant to this because it is in the tetracyclin derivative category known as ____________.

*Tigecycline - Glycylcylins

30

Does clindamycin penetrate the CSF?

Not really