Flashcards in Anti-virals not in sketchy Deck (22)
What is the indication and MoA of docosanol?
Herpes cold sores
Long-chain alcohol that may disturb cell membranes and reduce herpes virus entry into cells
What is ganciclovir indicated for?
What are the indications for foscarnet?
A mutation in UL97 kinase would confer resistance to what drug? (Why?)
What would you use instead?
Ganciclovir (UL97 is CMV's viral kinase, required by ganciclovir)
What are the adverse effects of foscarnet besides nephrotoxicity (crystals in glomeruli) and electrolyte disturbances?
Myelosuppression and anemia.
What is the MoA of pritelivir?
Helicase-primase inhibitor that blocks viral DNA replication
What is the indication for pritelivir?
What is the category for the best, newest anti-hepatitis drugs?
What were the 2 sketchy eg's?
What is their MoA?
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)
Sofosbuvir and simeprevir
Competitively inhibit (1*) viral protease. Inhibit (2*) viral RNA polymerase, allosterically or via chain termination.
Indireclty inhibit viral phosphoprotein activity.
What are the side effects of DAA's?
What can interfere with their effects?
Minor fatigue, headache, nausea, insomnia
P-gp inducers reduce therapeutic effect
When should IFN be used with caution?
If pt has cirrhosis
Name 2 drugs used to treat hBv
What is the MoA for entecavir?
Guanosine analogue; inhibits viral polymerase. Inhibits HBV DNA priming, RT and DNA polymerase
Prodrug hydrolyzes to adenine (dAMP) analog, then is phosphorylated to Ten-PPP, then blocks HBV DNA polymerase
What are the side effects of entecavir?
GI symptoms, fatigue, headache, renal failure
In which flu strains can amantadine/rimantadine possibly be used?
What about for oseltamivir/zanamivir?
Influenza A (not B or C)
Influenza A and B
What is the difference b/w oseltamivir and zanamivir?
Zanamivir: aerosol inhalant
What are the SE's of oseltamivir?
Osentamivir: Anxiety, disorientation, headache
Zanamivir: N/V, GI symptoms, insomnia, vertigo
What is palivizumab used for? (explain)
AB vs fusion protein of RSV
*Preventative vaccine for at-risk children (not a tx)
(Ribavirin is the nucleoside analogue tx, can't be used for kids/pregos. Also used for hep C)
What virus is pleconaril used to treat?
What's its mechanism of action?
Enterovirus D68 (a picovirus)
Becomes part of virus, changes virus shape, virus can no longer bind receptor to infect a new cell
What can be used as tx for Hep A?
Using the killed vaccine during prodromal period.
Tx for aplastic crisis during parvo infection?
IVIG in immunocompromised
When is letermovir used, specifically?
CMV prophylaxis in transplant pts
Targets the terminase complex (can’t cleave DNA copy)