Acute Diarrhea Flashcards Preview

FAMILY MEDICINE > Acute Diarrhea > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute Diarrhea Deck (22):
1

What causes 90% of acute diarrhea?

INFECTION

remainedr due to medications, ischemia, or toxins

2

Campers

giardia

3

travelers to Mexico

enterotoxigenic E coli

4

undercooked chicken

salmonella or shigella

5

raw seafood

vibrio, salmonella, hepA

6

Say you ate a salad with maynonnaise and got symptoms within 6 hours? 8-12 hours? 12-14 hours?

6 - s aureus
8-12 - clostridium perfringens
12-14 hours E coli

7

Daycare

shigella, giardia, rotavirus

8

patient in a nursing home or who were recently hospitalized, recently took antibiotics

C diff

9

Cold meats, raw milk, soft cheese

listeria

10

T/F: It is imperative to thoroughly work up any patient with acute diarrhea, as left untreated may become deadly

FALSE most patients with acute diarrhea have self limiting processes that don't require much workup

11

Red flags for COMPLICATED diarrhea

bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, fever greater than 100.4, diarrhea more than 48 hours, children, elderly, immunocompromised

12

Questions to ask patient with diarrhea

- exposure history (food, travel, others with similar symptoms, medications
- can you tolerate PO? (if not, more prone to dehydration)...may need hospitalization

13

When to use stool cultures?

bloody diarrhea, diarrhea lasting for more than 3-7 days, immunocompromised patients, evidence of systemic disease/severe dehydration

14

Antibiotic often associated with pseudomembranous colitis

clindamycin

BUT ANY ANTIBIOTIC CAN CAUSE THIS

15

How to treat most cases of diarrhea

REHYDRATION
mild - gatorade, pedialyte, encourage PO intake
severe - hospitalization for IV rehydration

may try antimotility agents like loperamide or zinc supplementation (in children)

16

Most common infectious cause of diarrhea

viral

17

How to prevent spread of viral diarrhea

HANDWASHING
- pasteurized dairy food
- eat hot and well cooked foods if traveliing to endemic areas, bottled water and soda, avoid ice

18

travelers diarrhea

more than 3 loose stools in a 24 hours period accompanied by abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, fever, or tenesmus. Most cases occur within 2 weeks of travel

19

What has been shown to reduce incidence of traveler's diarrhea

bismuth subsalicylate

20

When to initiate antibiotics for traveler's diarrhea and which class

as soon as diarrhea begins
use a quinolone or azithromycin for pregnant women and children

CIPRO 500 mg twice daily 3 times a day
AZITHRO single 100- mg dose adults

21

When can you use rifaximin?

TD caused by non invasive E coli (not effective in fever or bloody stool)

22

treatment for c diff

metronidazole or oral vanc