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Flashcards in MSK Injuries Deck (10)

Most commonly injured foot ligament

anterior talofibular ligament (common in ankle sprain)

2nd calcaneofibular ligament


What to doctors use to determine if an xray is needed to evaluate an ankle injury

Ottawa ankle rules

states that if there is bony tenderness of the posterior edge/tip of the distal cm of either medial or lateral malleolus; tenderness in midfoot coupled with point tenderness over bony aspects of base on 5th metatarsal OR IF PATIENT IS UNABLE TO BEAR WEIGHT...then do an xray, if not, no xray needed


how to manage ankle sprains

protection (with splinting/casting)
rest (initially, then start to do ROM exercises to help recovery)
ice (asap to minimize sweling and relieve pain)
compression and elevation with air stirrup brace to help reduce swelling

surgery as last resort


strain vs sprain

sprain - stretching/tearing injury of LIGAMENT
strain - stretching/tearing injury of MUSCLE


ROM in dislocation/joint effusion vs ROM in muscle injury or torn tendon

dislocation/joint effusion - both active and passive are limited
torn tendon/muscle injury - active limited, passive preserved


Ottawa knee rules

1. age 55 or older
2. isolated patella tenderness
3. Tenderness of head of fibula
4. inability to flex knee to 90 degrees
5. inability to bear weight for 4 steps immediately and on exam


First line imaging done for sprains/strains

xray to eval for fracture, if that's negative and symptoms are persisting...may consider MRI


When to start rehabilitative exercises

48-72 hours after injury in sprain/strain patients....inadequate rehab is the most common cause of persistently stiff, painful, or unstable joints following sprains


Sudden development of painful, tender, perirectal lump

external thrombosed hemhorroid

treat with thrombectomy under local anesthesia


Common overuse injury observed in adolescent girls; characterized by ANTERIOR knee pain associated with activity. Worsened walking on uneven terrain (stairs, hills). associated with inadequate hip abductor

patellofemoral pain syndrome