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Flashcards in Acute inflammation Deck (91)
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1

what is acute inflammation

how cells respond to attack, it is a sudden response if tissue is damaged

2

why is acute inflammation a sudden response to damaged tissue

to prevent the spread of infection e.g. bacteria & clears away dead tissue

3

list why and how acute inflammation occurs

- response to injury
- needs to be fast
- limit risk of infection
- not a precise science unlike humeral response
- sets up pathway to wound healing

4

what is meant by acute inflammation not being a precise science unlike humeral response

it is not targeted to B & T cells , so some healthy cells get killed in the process

5

what is the purpose of tissue responses to damage

to eliminate dead tissue which is necrotic (becomes phagocatised)

6

what is acute inflammations initial response to tissue damage

to be able to defend the body

7

list the relatively non specific responses of acute inflammation

1. eliminate dead tissue (e.g. phagocytosis)
2. protect against local infection (will be an area of neutrophils to defend the body)
3. allow immune system access (increased vascular permeability in the area to allow T & B cells to come in & target specific pathogens & begin the healing process led by macrophages)

8

what happens when acute inflammation allows the immune system to access

increased vascular permeability in the area to allow T & B cells to come in & target specific pathogens & begin the healing process led by macrophages

9

how does acute inflammation eliminate dead tissue

phagocytosis

10

how does acute inflammation protect against local infection

will be an area of neutrophils to defend the body

11

list the causes of inflammation

- infection
virus
fungi
bacteria (eg conjunctivitis = acute inflammation of conjunctiva)
parasites
- mechanical injury (e.g. blunt trauma)
- ischemia (causes an inflammatory response)
- chemical (e.g. burns)
- extremes of temperature
- radiation (UV)
- immune mechanisms (auto immune, may have acute inflammatory response e.g. seasonal hay fever)

12

list the 5 cardinal features of acute inflammation

1. rubor = redness
2. calor - heat
3. swelling (tumour)
4. dolor = pain
5. loss of function

13

what does rubor stand for

redness

14

what does calor stand for

heat

15

what is an example of swelling

tumour

16

what does dolor stand for

pain

17

what is an important clinical sign of acute inflammation

swelling (tumour)

18

what must be increased to allow access for an immune response

vascular permeability

19

at which stage does edema occur following an injury during acute inflammation

0-1.5 days
involved in the first wave of defence

20

what occurs during edema

swelling of vessels becomes more leaky, as the fluid leaks out and into the area of injury, which enables entry of neutrophils

21

when does the entry of neutrophils to the injured sight occur during acute inflammation

0-2.5 days
involved in the first stage of defence

22

what do the neutrophils do

fight off infections or dead cells, clearing the decks which paves away for the macrophages

23

what are monocytes

found in the blood stream
once migrate, gets activated and becomes M1 or M2 type macrophages

24

what do macrophages do

set up wound healing, so lays down collagen & recruits other cells to help heal the area

25

the initial mediators of acute inflammation must be fast and so can be derived from which two things

1. cell membrane (a lot of initiated early inflammatory responses are derived from the cell membrane)
or
2. plasma (blood) - acute inflammatory response when get cut to decrease bleeding and protect the area & heal the wound

26

What are the cell derived mediators of acute inflammation

from cells, secreted or synthesised i.e. histamine from mast cell.
usually platelets, neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and mast cells but mesochymal cells also possible

27

what is histamine

a powerful vasodilator which increases the vascular permeability very early & brings neutrophils in to protect

28

What are the plasma derived mediator of acute inflammation

inactive precursors in circulation ie complement proteins and kinins
(polypeptides of inactive proteins which circulate in the blood plasma & once its exposed to oxygen or collagen or the outside world, proteins and kinins becomes activated)

29

what are cell derived histamine & serotonin stored in and released from

- mast cells
- basophils
- platelets

30

what is the main purpose of mast cells, basophils and platelets

powerful vasodilators and increase vascular permeability