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Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (131)
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1

list the major cause of death in the US in 2005

- heart disease 26.6%
- malignant neoplasms (cancer) 22.8%
- cerebrovascular disease (stoke) 5.9%
- chronic lower respiratory disease 5.3%
- accidents 4.8%
- diabetes 1.3%
- Alzheimer's disease 2.9%
- influenza & pneumonia 2.6%
- kidney disease 1.8%
- septicemia 1.4%

2

what does the incident of cancer rise with

age

3

at what age is the peak of cancer incidents

75

4

what happens after the age of 25, every 5 years

the risk of developing cancer doubles

5

at what age do half of all cancers become clinically evident

people over 70 years old

6

what can double in the next 50 years due to an increase in the elderly population

worldwide number of deaths due to cancer

7

what is neoplasia

an abnormality of cell growth and multiplication

8

what is the abnormality and multiplication of cell growth characterized by in neoplasia

- excessive cellular proliferation usually producing a tumour
- uncoordinated growth occurring without apparent purpose
- persistence of excessive cell proliferation and growth even after inciting stimulus is removed

9

what is the abnormality and multiplication of cell growth characterized by in neoplasia at a molecular level

neoplasia is a disorder of growth regulatory genes:
- oncogenes eg can code for tissue growth factors
- tumour suppressor genes, on the other hand might downgrade the cell cycle & stop division

10

which gene dominates in neoplasia and enhances cell division

oncogenes causing lumps of tumours & tissues

11

what can neoplasia be triggered by

- viruses
- hereditary factors
- failure of immune system
- chemical carcinogens
- exposure to UV, or X-ray radiation

12

give an example of a hereditary factor which triggers neoplasia

retinoblastoma which is seen in children is due to an inherited abnormal chromosome 13

13

give an example of a virus which triggers neoplasia

retrovirus which are bits of RNA eg HIV

14

give an example of chemical carcinogens which can trigger neoplasia

- smoking
- soot
- asbestos

15

what type of neoplasia can exposure to UV cause

malignant melanoma

16

what 3 factors can neoplasms be classified as

1. site of origin
2. biological behavior
3. cell of origin

17

how is the site of origin of the neoplasm described

eg tumours in the breast, uterus etc were different from eachother which were first recognized by Egyptian embalmers

18

list the most common new cases of cancer in the US in 2008

- non-melanoma skin cancer - over 1 million
- lung cancer - over 250,000
- prostate cancer - over 186,000
- breast cancer (female) - over 182,000
- colon and rectal cancer - nearly 149,000
- bladder cancer - nearly 69,000
- non-Hodgkin lymphoma - over 66,000
- melanoma - over 62,000
- kidney (renal cell) cancer - over 46,000
- leukemia - over 44,000
- endometrial cancer - over 40,000
- pancreatic cancer - over 37,600
- thyroid cancer - over 37,000

19

what are the 2 main types of biological behavior of neoplasms

- benign
- malignant

20

how is benign neoplasms in relation to their origin

they stay at the site of origin

21

how is benign neoplasms in relation to danger and damage

less dangerous
but can do damage by compressing neighboring tissue

22

what is the appearance of a benign neoplasm

smooth surface with fibrotic capsule (capsulated in a sheet so it is smooth)

23

what is the rate of growth of a benign neoplasm

slow

24

what do the cells appear to look like of a benign neoplasm

resemble normal tissue

25

how are malignant neoplasms in relation to origin

they invade other tissue

26

what are malignant neoplasms which invade other tissues

secondary tumours are metastases

27

how dangerous are malignant neoplasms

fatal if not treated

28

what are untreated malignant neoplasms referred to as

cancers

29

what is the appearance of a malignant neoplasm

irregular and not encapsulated

30

what do cells appear to look like of a malignant neoplasm

cells have many abnormalities and do not resemble normal tissue