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Flashcards in Hypersensitivity Deck (131)
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1

what is hypersensitivity

immune mediated disease caused by inflammation & not by infection

2

what type of environment is the immune system essential

where many harmful microorganisms/pathogens are present

3

what has the immune system evolved to protect the body against

pathogens:
- viruses
- bacteria
- fungi
- parasites

4

what are immune responses mediated by

- a variety of cells
- soluble mediators that these cells produce

5

when can the immune system cause harm

- when it is absent of suppressed, so the body is open to opportunistic infections which lead to immunodeficiency i.e. an immune deficient disease such as AIDS
or
- when the immune system responds in a very aggressive way in trying to alleviate the damage that he pathogen or other antigen causes, so the immune system does harm to our bodies

6

what are the components of the immune system as mixture of

chemicals and cells

7

name the two types of leukocytes which act as components of the immune system

lymphocytes & phagocytes

8

what are the lymphocyte components of the immune system

B cell
T cell
large granular lymphocyte LGL

9

what soluble mediator do B cells produce

antibodies

10

what soluble mediator do T cells produce

cytokines

11

what soluble mediator do large granular lymphocytes produce

cytokines

12

what are large granular lymphocytes also known as, and what are they involved in

natural killer cells
involved in defence against viruses

13

what are the phagocyte components of the immune system

mononuclear phagocyte
neutrophil
eosinophil

14

what soluble mediators do mononuclear phagocytes produce

- cytokines
- complement

15

how do mononuclear phagocytes work

engulf antigens & sometimes destroy them
or
sometimes act as antigen presenting cells

16

how many % of leukocytes do neutrophils account for

70%

17

what property do neutrophils have

they are principle white cells of the blood, and also have a phagocytic property

18

where can neutrophils exist

they can exists within the blood, but can also leave blood & enter the tissues & phagocytose within the tissues

19

what are all the possible soluble mediators

- antibodies
- cytokines
- inflammatory mediators

20

what are the two granulocytes

eosinophils
basophils

21

what are the auxiliary cells - components of the immune system

basophils
mast cells
platelets

22

what do the auxiliary cells - basophils, mast cells and platelets form

inflammatory mediators

23

what are T cells responsible for

cell mediator immunity

24

what type of mechanism are phagocytes a part of

innate defence mechanism

25

how do phagocytes destroy antigens and pathogens

by internalising them, and in order to destroy the engulfed particles, phagocytes have strong enzymes which if released to tissue can damage

26

give examples of phagocytes which internalise the antigens and pathogens and destroy them

monocytes (and macrophages) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils

27

what are the body's first line of defence

barriers of our immune system within the body e.g. mucosal or skin barrier

28

what is the first defence of our body once a pathogen or antigen has passed the barriers of our immune system

phagocytes

29

what are B cells and T cells responsible for

recognition/detection of antigen

30

what are B cells/lymphocytes responsible for

antibody production