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Flashcards in Endocrine disease Deck (81)
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1

list the major endocrine glands in the human body

- pineal
- pituitary
- thyroid
- pancreas
- adrenal

2

what hormone does the pineal gland secrete

melatonin

3

what does melatonin (secreted by the pineal gland) regulate

circadian rhythm or sleep wake cycles

4

what are the chances of getting a pineal tumour

extremely rare
<1:200,000

but can be serious if do get the tumour

5

what % of pineal tumours comprises of inter cranial tumours

<1%

6

what age do pineal tumours develop

adults 35-60 years of age peak

7

list the presentations of pineal tumours

- headaches - hydrocephalus (due to enlarged ventricles which pushes)
- nausea
- blurred vision
- upward gaze palsy (parano syndrome)
- gait
- insomnia/sleep disturbances
- hearing loss

8

where is the pituitary gland situated

sits above the thalamus & hypothalamus

9

what cells are located anterior to the pituitary gland

- TRH = thyrotropin releasing hormone
- TSH = thyroid stimulating hormones
- PIF = prolactin inhibitory factor or dopamine
- PRL = prolactin
- CRH = corticotropin releasing hormone
- ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone (cortitropin)

10

what cells are located posterior to the pituitary gland

- GHRH = growth hormone releasing hormone (somatotrophin)
- GIH - growth hormone inhibitory factor (somatostatin)
- GnRH = gonadotropin
- FSH = follicle stimulating hormone
- LH = luteinizing hormone

11

how many % of intracranial neoplasms do pituitary tumours account for

10-15% (1 in 10)

12

what action of hormones occurs during pituitary tumours

presence of hormones, hyper secretion of hormones

13

what does destruction of pituitary i.e. ischemia (taking blood away from pituitary gland), iatrogenic cause to hormone secretion

absence or diminution of hormone secretion

14

what do pituitary tumours cause to adjacent structures

direction and extent of local expansion and invasion of adjacent structures i.e. non functioning adenoma

15

list the types of common adult pituitary tumours

- prolactinomas
- growth hormone secreting adenoma
- non secreting adenomas
- corticotroph adenoma (ACTH)
- TSH, FSH, LH are all rare (sex hormones)

16

what do ~15% of pituitary adenomas secrete

>hormone with prolactin + growth hormone the most common combination

17

what % of tumours do prolactinomas account for

30%

18

what do prolactinomas (pituitary tumours) do

DDX - dopamine inhibition (hypothalamus neurons) 2 degrees trauma

19

what do prolactinomas (pituitary tumours) usually cause in women

- amenorrhea - periods stop
- galactorrhea - 'witch's' milk

20

what do prolactinomas (pituitary tumours) usually cause in men

- testicular atrophy - dry up
- gynecomastia = man boobs
- diminished body hair
- impotence

21

what are the signs and symptoms of growth hormone secreting tumours in a pituitary tumour

acromegaly
patients report gradual enlargement and coarsening of facial features, hand and feet. Tumour may be large at time of diagnosis as signs and symptoms are slow

Gh stimulates IGF-1
if child gets gigantism
if adult gets acromegaly

22

what syndrome is associated with corticotrophin secreting adenomas (ACTH) as a result of pituitary tumours and what are the symptoms

cushing syndrome

Females : Males = 4:1
so more common in males

- truncal obesity
- abdominal stress
- moon faces
- thin skin
- high blood pressure
- glucose intolerance
- fatigue

23

who does the FSH, LH & TSH type of pituitary hormone occur mostly in

middle aged men and women

24

what symptoms does FSH, LH & TSH type of pituitary hormone cause

- visual field loss
- headache
- diplopia

25

what does FSH, LH & TSH type of pituitary hormone cause in men

decreased libido/energy

26

which pituitary hormone is are <1%

TSH

27

what does a pituitary tumour rarely cause

hyperthryroidism

28

what are the appearance of non secreting adenomas, tumours without endocrine symptoms at time of diagnosis

large but usually asymptomatic except headaches

29

what symptom do patients with non secreting adenomas (tumours without endocrine symptoms) have

severe frontal headaches, about 50% of patients

30

what is extremely rare in the non secreting adenomas of pituitary tumours

papilloedema