Acute Inflammation Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Acute Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute Inflammation Deck (23):
1

What are the 6 causes of acute inflammation?

- Microorganisms
- Mechanical trauma
- Chemical
- Extreme physical conditions
- Dead tissue
- Hypersenstivity

2

What are the benefits to acute inflammation?

- Rapid response
- Cardinal signs and loss of function for protection
- Neutrophil recruitment

3

What is the role of neutrophils in acute inflammation?

- Destruction of pathogens
- Denaturation of antigens for macrophages

4

What else is a key factor in the acute inflammation process, other than neutrophils?

Plasma proteins

5

What are the steps involved in microvascular change?

- Change in vessel radius/flow
- Change in vessel permeability
- Movement of neutrophils from the vessel to extracellular space

6

Describe the change in vessel radius

- Transient vasoconstriction
- Local vasodilation
- Caused by changes in contraction space of vessel smooth muscle
- Triple response
- Causes rubor and calor

7

What is the triple response?

- Line - white line
- Flare - red inflamed line
- Wheal - nothing

8

What does rubor mean?

Redness

9

What does calor mean?

Heat

10

What 3 things does the change in vessel permeability result in?

- Endothelial leak
- Plasma, fibrinogen and immunoglobulin all leaving the vessels
- Oedema

11

What are the three processes of movement by neutrophils into the extracellular space?

- Margination
- Pavementing
- Emigration

12

What is margination?

- Neutrophils move to endothelium under chemotaxis

13

What is pavementing?

- Neutrophils adhere to endothelia using ICAM-1

14

What is emigration (take a wild fucking guess)?

- Neutrophils squeeze between endothelia to outer tissue through the action of P selectin

15

What are the 4 systematic effects of acute inflammation?

- Pyrexia
- Malaise
- Neutrophilia
- Septic shock

16

What is pyrexia?

High temperature

17

What is malaise?

Feeling generally unwell

18

What is neutrophilia?

High number of neutrophil granulocytes in the blood

19

What is septic shock?

Dangerously low BP following infection

20

What 3 things does acute inflammation lead to in healing?

- Granulation tissue formation
- Healing and repair
- Scar formation

21

What is the process of granulation tissue formation?

- Inflammatory mass
- Capillaries grow into the mass (angiogenesis)
- Allows access for plasma proteins, macrophages and fibroblasts
- Collagen laid down

22

What functionality does granulation tissue have compared to its mother tissue?

Limited to none

23

What are examples of when acute inflammation spreads to the bloodstream (sepsis)?

- Bacteraemia - bacteria move to the blood
- Septicaemia - bacteria reproduce in the blood
- Toxaemia - bacteria produce their exotoxin in the blood