Flashcards in Tumour Pathology Deck (62)
What 2 things does the classification of tumours depend on?
- Region found
- Benign or malignant
What is the name given to benign glandular tumours?
What is the name given to malignant glandular tumours?
What is the name given to benign squamous tumours?
What is the name given to malignant tumours?
What is the name given to benign bone tumours?
What is the name given to malignant bone tumours?
What is the name given to benign fat tumours?
What is the name given to malignant fat tumours?
What is the name given to benign fibrous tissue tumours?
What is the name given to malignant fibrous tissue tumours?
What is the name given to malignant white blood cell tumours?
What is the name given to malignant lymphoid tissue tumours?
What is the name given to germ cell tumours?
Which teratomas are usually benign?
Which teratomas are usually malignant?
What is the difference in growth pattern between benign and malignant tumours?
Benign = non invasive
Malignant = invasive
What differs with regards to the capsule in benign and malignant tumours?
- Benign have an intact capsule
- Malignant have no capsule/capsule breached
Whats the difference between cell functionality of malignant and benign tumours?
Benign = similar to normal cells
Malignant = lost function
What are the 4 properties of cancer cells? (AG AC AF I)
- Altered genetics
- Altered cellular function
- Abnormal structure
- Independent growth
What are the 4 ways cancer can spread around the body?
Describe local spread
- Malignant tumour invades surround connective tissue
Describe lymphatic spread
- Tumour cells adhere to blood vessels
- Penetrate them and pass to lymph nodes forming a metastasis
Describe blood spread
- Tumour cells invade blood, forms metastasis in secondary tissue
Describe trans-coelomic spread
- Spread across body cavities
- E.g. pleural space, peritoneal
Name the 5 most common metastatic sites
- Adrenal glands
What are the local effects of benign tumours?
What are the local effects of malignant tumours?
- Tissue destruction
- Effects of treatment
What can tissue destruction by malignancy result in
What can local bleeding result in?
How do tumours cause pain?
Pressure on nerves
What are the 3 systemic effects of cancer?
- Secretion of hormones
- Weight loss (cachexia)
- Effects of treatment
What is cachexia?
What is dysplasia?
A pre malignant change
What does dysplasia indicate?
The tumour is going to become malignant
What is the name of the dysplasic tumour?
What happens to a neoplasm if left untreated?
- Becomes malignant
What are the features of intra-epithelial neoplasia?
- Disorganisation of cells
- Increased nuclear size
- Increased mitotic activity
- Abnormal mitosis
- No invasion
What is the cell cycle?
The time between mitotic divisions
What are the stages of the cell cycle in order?
- G1 (and G0)
What is carcinogenesis?
Production of cancer cells caused by the mutation of genetic material
Which genes usually result in cancer if they have mutations in them?
Those important in regulation of the cell cycle
What are the two most common pathways that mutate to result in cancer?
- Cyclin pRb pathway
What is the role of pRb in the cell cycle?
- It acts as the breaks
- Slows down growth and proliferation
What does a mutation in pRb cause?
No brakes so the cell continues to grow and proliferate
What is the normal role of P53?
- Maintaining the genome
When does P53 stop the cell cycle?
- When the cell is damaged
- It tries to repair the DNA
What happens if the DNA is severely damaged?
- P53 triggers apoptosis
What do mutations in P53 cause?
The cell cycle to continue regardless of the damage
What are the 4 major aetiological agents of cancer?
- Hereditary/inherited dispositions
- Proto-oncogenes becoming oncogenes
What are examples of cancers caused by viruses?
- HPV-1 causes cervical cancer
- Hep B causes liver cancer
- Epstein-Barr causes Burkitt's and Hodgkin's lymphoma
What is required mutation wise to result in a malignant tumour
Describe the multi mutation pathway of the formation of a malignant cancer
- Normal cell exposed to carcinogenic factors
- DNA damage and genomic mutations
- Inactivation of tumour suppressor genes
- OR activation of oncogenes
- Cell cycle dysregulation occurs
- Malignant neoplasm forms
How do MRI's work?
- Magnetic fields make protons in the body to spin in the same direction
- Radiofrequency pulse distorts the protons
- Pictures taken when the protons "relax" back into their original positions
What are the advantages of MRI contrast agents?
- Good bone/soft tissue detail
What systems can be viewed under MRI
- Musculoskeletal system
What are the disadvantages to MRI's
- Claustrophobic and loud
- Cannot image patients with a pacemaker or prosthetics (pins)
What is an example of an MRI contrast?
What is staging in cancer?
- WHERE the cancer is
- WHAT stage the cancer is at
- Takes several factors in to account to help assess local/distant spread
- Indicates prognosis
What does staging allow?
What are the 5 aspects of staging?
- POSITION of tumour
- PENETRATION depth of tumour
- WHERE the tumour lies from other structures
- Regional LYMPH node association
- Presence of DISTANT metastases