Tumour Pathology Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Tumour Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Pathology Deck (62):
1

What 2 things does the classification of tumours depend on?

- Region found
- Benign or malignant

2

What is the name given to benign glandular tumours?

Adenoma

3

What is the name given to malignant glandular tumours?

Adeno-carcinoma

4

What is the name given to benign squamous tumours?

Squamous papilloma

5

What is the name given to malignant tumours?

Squamous carcinoma

6

What is the name given to benign bone tumours?

Osteoma

7

What is the name given to malignant bone tumours?

Osteo-sarcoma

8

What is the name given to benign fat tumours?

Lipoma

9

What is the name given to malignant fat tumours?

Lipo-sarcoma

10

What is the name given to benign fibrous tissue tumours?

Fibroma

11

What is the name given to malignant fibrous tissue tumours?

Fibro-sarcoma

12

What is the name given to malignant white blood cell tumours?

Leukaemia

13

What is the name given to malignant lymphoid tissue tumours?

Lymphoma

14

What is the name given to germ cell tumours?

Teratomas

15

Which teratomas are usually benign?

Ovarian

16

Which teratomas are usually malignant?

Testicular

17

What is the difference in growth pattern between benign and malignant tumours?

Benign = non invasive
Malignant = invasive

18

What differs with regards to the capsule in benign and malignant tumours?

- Benign have an intact capsule
- Malignant have no capsule/capsule breached

19

Whats the difference between cell functionality of malignant and benign tumours?

Benign = similar to normal cells
Malignant = lost function

20

What are the 4 properties of cancer cells? (AG AC AF I)

- Altered genetics
- Altered cellular function
- Abnormal structure
- Independent growth

21

What are the 4 ways cancer can spread around the body?

- Local
- Lymphatic
- Blood
- Trans-coleomic

22

Describe local spread

- Malignant tumour invades surround connective tissue

23

Describe lymphatic spread

- Tumour cells adhere to blood vessels
- Penetrate them and pass to lymph nodes forming a metastasis

24

Describe blood spread

- Tumour cells invade blood, forms metastasis in secondary tissue

25

Describe trans-coelomic spread

- Spread across body cavities
- E.g. pleural space, peritoneal

26

Name the 5 most common metastatic sites

- Brain
- Liver
- Bone
- Lung
- Adrenal glands

27

What are the local effects of benign tumours?

- Pressure
- Obstruction

28

What are the local effects of malignant tumours?

- Pressure
- Obstruction
- Tissue destruction
- Bleeding
- Pain
- Effects of treatment

29

What can tissue destruction by malignancy result in

- Infection
- Ulceration

30

What can local bleeding result in?

- Haemorrhage
- Anaemia

31

How do tumours cause pain?

Pressure on nerves

32

What are the 3 systemic effects of cancer?

- Secretion of hormones
- Weight loss (cachexia)
- Effects of treatment

33

What is cachexia?

General wasting

34

What is dysplasia?

A pre malignant change

35

What does dysplasia indicate?

The tumour is going to become malignant

36

What is the name of the dysplasic tumour?

Neoplasm

37

What happens to a neoplasm if left untreated?

- Becomes malignant

38

What are the features of intra-epithelial neoplasia?

- Disorganisation of cells
- Increased nuclear size
- Increased mitotic activity
- Abnormal mitosis
- No invasion

39

What is the cell cycle?

The time between mitotic divisions

40

What are the stages of the cell cycle in order?

- G1 (and G0)
- S
- G2
- M

41

What is carcinogenesis?

Production of cancer cells caused by the mutation of genetic material

42

Which genes usually result in cancer if they have mutations in them?

Those important in regulation of the cell cycle

43

What are the two most common pathways that mutate to result in cancer?

- Cyclin pRb pathway
- P53

44

What is the role of pRb in the cell cycle?

- It acts as the breaks
- Slows down growth and proliferation

45

What does a mutation in pRb cause?

No brakes so the cell continues to grow and proliferate

46

What is the normal role of P53?

- Maintaining the genome

47

When does P53 stop the cell cycle?

- When the cell is damaged
- It tries to repair the DNA

48

What happens if the DNA is severely damaged?

- P53 triggers apoptosis

49

What do mutations in P53 cause?

The cell cycle to continue regardless of the damage

50

What are the 4 major aetiological agents of cancer?

- Hereditary/inherited dispositions
- Proto-oncogenes becoming oncogenes
- Viruses
- Chemicals

51

What are examples of cancers caused by viruses?

- HPV-1 causes cervical cancer
- Hep B causes liver cancer
- Epstein-Barr causes Burkitt's and Hodgkin's lymphoma

52

What is required mutation wise to result in a malignant tumour

Multiple mutations

53

Describe the multi mutation pathway of the formation of a malignant cancer

- Normal cell exposed to carcinogenic factors
- DNA damage and genomic mutations
- Inactivation of tumour suppressor genes
- OR activation of oncogenes
- Cell cycle dysregulation occurs
- Malignant neoplasm forms

54

How do MRI's work?

- Magnetic fields make protons in the body to spin in the same direction
- Radiofrequency pulse distorts the protons
- Pictures taken when the protons "relax" back into their original positions

55

What are the advantages of MRI contrast agents?

- Good bone/soft tissue detail

56

What systems can be viewed under MRI

- Vessels
- Cardiac
- Brain
- Spine
- Musculoskeletal system

57

What are the disadvantages to MRI's

- Claustrophobic and loud
- Cannot image patients with a pacemaker or prosthetics (pins)

58

What is an example of an MRI contrast?

Galdolinium DPTA

59

What is staging in cancer?

- WHERE the cancer is
- WHAT stage the cancer is at
- Takes several factors in to account to help assess local/distant spread
- Indicates prognosis

60

What does staging allow?

Prognosis

61

What are the 5 aspects of staging?

- POSITION of tumour
- PENETRATION depth of tumour
- WHERE the tumour lies from other structures
- Regional LYMPH node association
- Presence of DISTANT metastases

62

What are the 5 classes of anti- cancer therapeutics?

- Alkalyting agents
- Antimetabolites
- Vinca alkaloids
- Taxanes
- Antimitotic antibodies