Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity Deck (34):
1

What is type 1 hypersensitivity?

- When the body recognises an environmental antigen as a pathogen

2

What does type 1 hypersensitivity release?

IgE

3

What cells are triggered by type 1 hypersensitivity?

- Mast cells
- Blood basophils

4

What happens during sensitisation?

- The allergen is shown to a T helper cell by an APC
- B cells then differentiate

5

What do B cells produce during sensitisation?

IgE

6

What occurs if the patient is exposed to the antigen after sensitisation?

- Mast cells release cytokines
- Allergic reaction results

7

What is type 2 hypersensitivity?

Body's antibodies bind to antigens on its own cells

8

What can happen if penicillin binds to blood cell?

Antibodies are produced in response to the antigens on that cells surface

9

What can IgG and IgM antibodies trigger?

Complement system

10

What does the activation of the complement system cause?

Lysis

11

What is type 3 hypersensitivity?

When the body forms immune complexes

12

What are immune complexes?

When antibodies stick together in a clump

13

With regards to concentration, how do immune complexes form?

- Low conc. of antibody
- High conc. of antigen

14

What causes type 4 hypersensitivity?

CD4 helper T cells recognise a foreign antigen

15

What do these CD4 helper T cells release?

Cytokines

16

What does the release of these cytokines cause?

Inflammatory response

17

How fast does the early phase response react?

Within minutes

18

What is released during the early phase response?

- Histamine
- Heparin
- Chemotactic factors

19

What cell releases the chemicals in the early phase response?

Mast cell mediators

20

What is released during the late phase response?

- Prostaglandins
- Leukotrines

21

What cytokines are released in the late phase response?

Th2 cytokines

22

What cells are the mediators of the late phase response?

Eosinophils

23

What 2 complexes can form during type 3 hypersensitivity?

- Localised
- Systemic

24

What is localised type 3 complexes and how is it cleared?

- Inflammation of nearby tissue
- Cleared by macrophages

25

What is an autoimmune disease?

Disorder caused by organ damage of the immune system targeting self antigens

26

What 5 factors can result in an autoimmune disease?

- Genetic factors
- Immune regulatory factors
- Hormonal factors
- Environmental factors
- Other

27

What are the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune disease?

- Cell mediated
- Antibody mediated
- Antibody + compliment
- Immune complex mediated
- Accumulation of innate compounds

28

Name 3 autoimmune thyroid diseases

- Hashimoto's thyroiditis
- Thyroxicosis
- Primary myxoedema

29

Name an autoimmune stomach disease

Pernicious anaemia

30

Name an autoimmune adrenal disease

Addisons disease

31

Name an autoimmune disease that damages the muscle

Dermatomyositis

32

Name an autoimmune disease that affects the skin

Scleroderma

33

Name and autoimmune disease that affects the kidneys

SLE (lupus)

34

Name an autoimmune disease of the joints

Rheumatoid arthritis