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Flashcards in Addiction Deck (62)
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1

Effects of drugs can be:

Neurophysiological
Behavioural
Emotional
Cognitive

2

The most rapid route of drug administration is, then..?

Inhalation, intravenous, oral

3

DSM-5 marks the first presence of the word

Addiction

4

What are the key features of an addiction?

1. Chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory & related circuitry
2. excessive pursuit of reward (either positive rft and/or negative rft)
3. Diminished control
- repeated unsuccessful efforts to reduce or control use
- persistent use despite harmful consequences
4. Compulsion and craving
5. Salience: rewarding qualities of the substance becomes predominant over other interests
6. Increased tolerance and withdrawal syndrome on discontinuation
7. cycles of relapse and remission common

5

the Choice Theory of addiction is in contrast to the

Impaired control model

6

Addiction and _______ often used interchangeably

dependence

7

What is the difference between physiological dependence and psychological dependence?

Physiological dependence is associated with physical symptoms of tolerance withdrawal

Psychological dependence is associated with cravings/desire leading to repeated (compulsive) use

8

What is the average age of onset for alcohol dependence?

23-33

9

What is the average of alcoholics entering treatment?

40

10

___ of substance users have a comorbid psychiatric disorder?

60%

11

Patients with mood/anxiety disorder _____ as likely to develop substance disorder, and vice versa

twice

12

likely that the genetic basis for substance dependence is largely ________, rather than unique to particular substances

non-specific

13

once sensitised, individuals often show...

cross-sensitisation

14

Majority of drugs are association with...

the dopaminergic reward system

15

What is the kitchen sink analogy?

Drugs act like a rubber stopper - stopping the reuptake of dopamine in the neurons
This causes an excess of dopamine in the synapse, this 'overflow' causes pleasure and euphoria

16

The mesolimbic system of the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus is associated with...

acute reinforcing effects, memory and conditioning linked to craving, emotional and motivational changes during withdrawal
Arousal and euphoria

17

The mesocortical system of the PFC, obito-frontal cortex and anterior cingulate is associated with...

conscious experience of intoxication, salience, expectations, craving, inhibitory control/decision-making
Increased inhibition, bad decision-making

18

Ventricle tegmental area sends dopamine ---> __________ ---> regulates emotions; _________ ---> controls motor functions ---> __________, memories formed ----> __________, decision-making and attention

amygdala
nucleus accumbens
hippocampus
prefrontal cortex

eg eating a piece of cake
amygdala: this is delicious, making me happy
nucleus accumbens: pleasure centre activated, making u want to take another bite
hippocampus: remembers experience and context
prefrontal cortex: focus attention on cake, making the decision to take another bite
reward system = reactivated with each bite

19

Drugs of dependence operate on three areas:
1. basal ganglia
2. extended amygdala
3. prefrontal cortex

1 = reward and formation of habitual use
2 = irritability, anxiety and withdrawal
3 = decision making/control

20

The four stage cycle of addiction involves

1. binge/intoxication
2. withdrawal/negative affect
3. preoccupation/anticipation
--->
4. craving/compulsive usage

21

What is incentive salience via conditioning?

With repeated use, there is increased salience for using that particular substance
- taking priority over other natural rewards, social activities

22

What happens when you take the drug away?

A state of depletion in the dopamine system; an aversive state, experienced with physical symptoms of withdrawal ---> motivates individuals to continue taking the drug

23

Withdrawal ---> ______ reinforcement

negative

24

How do neurotransmitters change in addiction?

compensate for excess dopamine - dopamine dysregulation

25

What is the violation effect?

person is abstinent for a long period of time, but then is exposed to stress (which they have in the past associated with usage) leading to relapse (negative reinforcement)
- reward memory in hippocampus

26

What are the different phases in learning theories of addiction?

Acquisition (experimental/circumstantial drug use ---> casual drug use)

Motivational phase - compulsive drug use - motivation to use increases

---->Addiction

27

Opponent-process theory
A-process =
B-process =

A = euphoria from drugs
B = bring back to homeostasis

28

With repeated usage, the ___-process becomes stronger, which results in _________ and requires ______

B
tolerance
increasing dosage of drug (A) to make it the same response as you previously had

29

Prolonged abstinence can ________ b-process. Once b-process returns to normal, addiction _______.

decay
ceases

30

How does antabuse work to treat alcohol addiction?

If you drink you become violently ill - lose positive association (counter-conditioning)