Flashcards in Addiction Deck (62)
Effects of drugs can be:
The most rapid route of drug administration is, then..?
Inhalation, intravenous, oral
DSM-5 marks the first presence of the word
What are the key features of an addiction?
1. Chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory & related circuitry
2. excessive pursuit of reward (either positive rft and/or negative rft)
3. Diminished control
- repeated unsuccessful efforts to reduce or control use
- persistent use despite harmful consequences
4. Compulsion and craving
5. Salience: rewarding qualities of the substance becomes predominant over other interests
6. Increased tolerance and withdrawal syndrome on discontinuation
7. cycles of relapse and remission common
the Choice Theory of addiction is in contrast to the
Impaired control model
Addiction and _______ often used interchangeably
What is the difference between physiological dependence and psychological dependence?
Physiological dependence is associated with physical symptoms of tolerance withdrawal
Psychological dependence is associated with cravings/desire leading to repeated (compulsive) use
What is the average age of onset for alcohol dependence?
What is the average of alcoholics entering treatment?
___ of substance users have a comorbid psychiatric disorder?
Patients with mood/anxiety disorder _____ as likely to develop substance disorder, and vice versa
likely that the genetic basis for substance dependence is largely ________, rather than unique to particular substances
once sensitised, individuals often show...
Majority of drugs are association with...
the dopaminergic reward system
What is the kitchen sink analogy?
Drugs act like a rubber stopper - stopping the reuptake of dopamine in the neurons
This causes an excess of dopamine in the synapse, this 'overflow' causes pleasure and euphoria
The mesolimbic system of the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus is associated with...
acute reinforcing effects, memory and conditioning linked to craving, emotional and motivational changes during withdrawal
Arousal and euphoria
The mesocortical system of the PFC, obito-frontal cortex and anterior cingulate is associated with...
conscious experience of intoxication, salience, expectations, craving, inhibitory control/decision-making
Increased inhibition, bad decision-making
Ventricle tegmental area sends dopamine ---> __________ ---> regulates emotions; _________ ---> controls motor functions ---> __________, memories formed ----> __________, decision-making and attention
eg eating a piece of cake
amygdala: this is delicious, making me happy
nucleus accumbens: pleasure centre activated, making u want to take another bite
hippocampus: remembers experience and context
prefrontal cortex: focus attention on cake, making the decision to take another bite
reward system = reactivated with each bite
Drugs of dependence operate on three areas:
1. basal ganglia
2. extended amygdala
3. prefrontal cortex
1 = reward and formation of habitual use
2 = irritability, anxiety and withdrawal
3 = decision making/control
The four stage cycle of addiction involves
2. withdrawal/negative affect
4. craving/compulsive usage
What is incentive salience via conditioning?
With repeated use, there is increased salience for using that particular substance
- taking priority over other natural rewards, social activities
What happens when you take the drug away?
A state of depletion in the dopamine system; an aversive state, experienced with physical symptoms of withdrawal ---> motivates individuals to continue taking the drug
Withdrawal ---> ______ reinforcement
How do neurotransmitters change in addiction?
compensate for excess dopamine - dopamine dysregulation
What is the violation effect?
person is abstinent for a long period of time, but then is exposed to stress (which they have in the past associated with usage) leading to relapse (negative reinforcement)
- reward memory in hippocampus
What are the different phases in learning theories of addiction?
Acquisition (experimental/circumstantial drug use ---> casual drug use)
Motivational phase - compulsive drug use - motivation to use increases
A = euphoria from drugs
B = bring back to homeostasis
With repeated usage, the ___-process becomes stronger, which results in _________ and requires ______
increasing dosage of drug (A) to make it the same response as you previously had
Prolonged abstinence can ________ b-process. Once b-process returns to normal, addiction _______.